[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones plays a major role in the normal development of the male and female brain and sexually dimorphic behaviors. Hormone-dependent differences in brain structure and function suggest that exposure to exogenous endocrine disrupting chemicals may be associated with sex-specific alterations in behavior. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental chemical that has been shown to alter estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest associations between prenatal exposure to BPA and child behavior, however data are inconsistent, and few studies have examined school age children. We examined BPA concentration in spot urine samples from women at mean 27 weeks of pregnancy in relation to child behavior assessed at age 6-10 years using the parent-completed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We report associations between maternal BPA urinary concentrations and several CBCL scores in 153 children (77 boys, 76 girls). We observed a significant interaction between maternal urinary BPA and sex for several behaviors (externalizing, aggression, Anxiety Disorder, Oppositional/Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder traits), but no significant associations between BPA and scores on any CBCL scales. However in analyses restricted to children of mothers with detectable prenatal urinary BPA (n=125), BPA was associated with moderately increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors, withdrawn/depressed behavior, somatic problems, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder traits in boys. In addition we observed a significant interaction between BPA and sex for several behaviors (externalizing, withdrawn/depressed, rule-breaking, Oppositional/Defiant Disorder traits, and Conduct Disorder traits). These results suggest that prenatal exposure to BPA may be related to increased behavior problems in school age boys, but not girls.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110509. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110509 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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