Acetaminophen Use During Pregnancy, Behavioral Problems, and Hyperkinetic Disorders
ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is the most commonly used medication for pain and fever during pregnancy in many countries. Research data suggest that acetaminophen is a hormone disruptor, and abnormal hormonal exposures in pregnancy may influence fetal brain development. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether prenatal exposure to acetaminophen increases the risk for developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral problems or hyperkinetic disorders (HKDs) in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We studied 64 322 live-born children and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. EXPOSURES Acetaminophen use during pregnancy was assessed prospectively via 3 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy and 6 months after child birth. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES To ascertain outcome information we used (1) parental reports of behavioral problems in children 7 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; (2) retrieved HKD diagnoses from the Danish National Hospital Registry or the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry prior to 2011; and (3) identified ADHD prescriptions (mainly Ritalin) for children from the Danish Prescription Registry. We estimated hazard ratios for receiving an HKD diagnosis or using ADHD medications and risk ratios for behavioral problems in children after prenatal exposure to acetaminophen. RESULTS More than half of all mothers reported acetaminophen use while pregnant. Children whose mothers used acetaminophen during pregnancy were at higher risk for receiving a hospital diagnosis of HKD (hazard ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.19-1.59), use of ADHD medications (hazard ratio = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.15-1.44), or having ADHD-like behaviors at age 7 years (risk ratio = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27). Stronger associations were observed with use in more than 1 trimester during pregnancy, and exposure response trends were found with increasing frequency of acetaminophen use during gestation for all outcomes (ie, HKD diagnosis, ADHD medication use, and ADHD-like behaviors; P trend < .001). Results did not appear to be confounded by maternal inflammation, infection during pregnancy, the mother's mental health problems, or other potential confounders we evaluated. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk for HKDs and ADHD-like behaviors in children. Because the exposure and outcome are frequent, these results are of public health relevance but further investigations are needed.
- 02/2014; 168(4). DOI:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5292
Article: Sex-related differences in migraine[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper reviews sex-related differences in migraine epidemiology, symptoms, natural history and co-morbid disorders. Migraine is more than twice as common in females as in males, and women experience more frequent, longer lasting and more painful attacks, have more disability and a risk of transition from episodic to chronic migraine greater than men, but the mechanisms behind these differences are still poorly understood. The role of sex hormones, genes, and the differences in brain function and structure are discussed. Finally, we evaluate the many gender-related questions about treatment of migraine in women. In future research data should be analyzed separately for men and women to ensure that differences between the sexes could be identified.Neurological Sciences 05/2014; 35 Suppl 1:207-13. DOI:10.1007/s10072-014-1772-y · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group) for 12 h per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard) cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group) throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3) infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioral testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behavior of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 06/2014; 8:223. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00223 · 4.16 Impact Factor