Use of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Thailand, 2004–2008

Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2014; 20(3):408-16. DOI: 10.3201/eid2003.130951
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 2004, routine use of culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was implemented for persons in 5 Thailand provinces with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). To determine if DST results were being used to guide treatment, we conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with rifampin-resistant or multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB during 2004-2008. A total of 208 patients were identified. Median time from clinical sample collection to physician review of DST results was 114 days. Only 5.8% of patients with MDR TB were empirically prescribed an appropriate regimen; an additional 31.3% received an appropriate regimen after DST results were reviewed. Most patients with rifampin -resistant or MDR TB had successful treatment outcomes. Patients with HIV co-infection and patients who were unmarried or had received category II treatment before DST results were reviewed had less successful outcomes. Overall, review of available DST results was delayed, and results were rarely used to improve treatment.

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Available from: Eugene Lam, Jul 15, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The relationship between extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) is unclear. Identification of the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB would have important implications for patient care. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the records of patients admitted with a confirmed pulmonary TB from 2011 to 2014. To identify the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB, univariable comparison and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results: Among 2962 pulmonary TB patients, 45(1.5%) patients had a diagnosis of XDR-TB. A total of 165 MDR-GNB strains were detected in 143 (4.8%) pulmonary TB patients. XDR-TB patients had a significantly higher occurrence of MDR-GNB than non-XDR-TB patients (24.4% vs. 4.5%; P<0.001). Age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18-1.85), chronic renal failure (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.42-31.47), chronic hepatic insufficiency (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15-3.43), presence of XDR-TB (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.61-26.69), and duration of TB diagnostic delay (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) were the independent risk factors for MDR-GNB infection. Conclusions: Patients with XDR-TB have a significantly higher risk of being affected by MDR-GNB pathogen. The underlying mechanism association warrant further studies.
    PLoS ONE 08/2015; 10(7):e0134998. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0134998 · 3.23 Impact Factor