Social capital and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors of the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the association between chronic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and both structural and cognitive social capital in adult survivors of the 2007 earthquake in Pisco, Peru. Cognitive social capital measures trust, sense of belonging and interpersonal relationships in the community and structural social capital measures group membership, support from community groups and individuals, and involvement in citizenship activities. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in five counties in Pisco, selecting 1012 adults through complex, multi-stage random sampling. All participants completed socio-demographic questions and validated Spanish-language versions of the Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool (SASCAT) and the civilian PTSD checklist (PCL-C). After performing descriptive and bivariate analyses, we carried out prevalence ratio (PR) regression. The overall prevalence of chronic PTSD was 15.9% (95% CI: 12.3, 19.8), much higher than anticipated based on existing evidence. Cognitive social capital was found to be negatively associated with chronic PTSD, while no significant association was found for structural social capital. Specifically, those with high cognitive social capital had an almost two times lower prevalence of chronic PTSD (PR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.50, 2.22) compared with those with low cognitive social capital. No independent association between structural social capital and chronic PTSD was found (PR = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.70, 2.97). In conclusion, cognitive social capital, but not structural social capital, has a protective influence on the occurrence of chronic PTSD in survivors of natural disasters. These results may have public health implications. For example, pre- and post-disaster community-based interventions that catalyze and foster dimensions of cognitive social capital may aid in ameliorating the effect of earthquakes and other natural disasters on populations with high vulnerability to such events and poor access to mental health and other support services.
- SourceAvailable from: Paolo Stratta[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Considerable comorbidity rates between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and eating disorders have been recently reported, as well as increased obesity and underweight conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between DSM-5 PTSD, gender and impaired eating habits in a sample of 512 Italian earthquake survivors evaluated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR). Alterations in eating behaviors were assessed by means of four MOODS-SR items: n=150 (…there was no food that appealed to you or tasted good to you?), n=151 (…you constantly craved sweets or carbohydrates?), n=152 (…your appetite or weight decreased?), n=153 (…your appetite or weight increased?). In a Decision Tree procedure subjects with PTSD with respect to those without and, in the No-PTSD subgroup, females with respect to males, had a significantly higher ratio of at least one MOODS-SR eating behavior item (MOODS-SR EB). In the No-PTSD subgroup only, subjects with at least one MOODS-SR EB presented a significantly higher mean TALS-SR symptomatological domains total score with respect to those without MOODS-SR EB. In conclusion, alterations in eating behaviors were associated with PTSD after the L׳Aquila earthquake; among survivors without PTSD significant a correlation emerged between MOODS-SR EB and PTSD symptoms.Psychiatry Research 01/2015; 225(1-2):64-69. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.10.008 · 2.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The long-term psychiatric consequences of exposure to war and/or mass conflict continue to be of great concern and particularly in Cambodia. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between history of trauma and current psychiatric and functional morbidity in 3200 randomly selected adults aged 18-60 in Cambodia. Structured interviews were conducted from November 2011 until May 2012 in two predominantly rural regions purposively selected for differing duration of exposure to the Khmer Rouge occupation. Information was also collected regarding ongoing daily stressors and intimate partner violence. Despite high prevalence rates of conflict/war-related trauma, current rates of psychiatric disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder) were relatively low, suggesting that the effects of trauma and extreme hardship in civilian populations may be modified by contextual factors and/or the passage of time. Poor to fair physical health was, however, reported by nearly 60% of the sample. Daily stressors were more important for current morbidity levels than history of trauma, especially in the region with shorter Khmer Rouge occupation. The results suggest that a focus exclusively on past trauma may overlook the contribution of adverse daily life circumstances towards current levels of well-being in civilian populations affected by war and/or mass conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Social Science & Medicine 10/2014; 123C:133-140. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.049 · 2.56 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Common ground is necessary for developing collaboration as part of building resilience for public health preparedness. While the importance of common ground as an essential component of collaboration has been well described, there is a need for studies to identify how common ground develops over time, across individual and group dimensions, and the contexts that influence its development. This paper studied common ground development in three Canadian communities between October 2010 and March 2011 through a project on capacity building for disaster management. Disaster management requires the integration of paid and volunteer participants across public and private sectors and is therefore a good domain to study common ground development. We used directed qualitative content analysis to develop a model of common ground development over time that describes its progression through coordinative, cooperative and collaborative common ground. We also identified how common ground develops at micro (individual) and macro (group) levels, as well as how agency, technology and geographical contexts influence its development. We then use the four phases of disaster management to illustrate how our model can support longitudinal common ground development. Our findings provide useful insight to enable proactive development of common ground in collaborative health communities.Social Science & Medicine 03/2015; 128. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.01.032 · 2.56 Impact Factor