HIV Medical Providers’ Perceptions of the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy as Nonoccupational Postexposure Prophylaxis in 2 Major Metropolitan Areas.
ABSTRACT AB Introduction: In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded its recommendation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) use in the workplace to include nonoccupational exposures (nPEP). The availability and extensive use of nPEP have not achieved widespread acceptance among health-care providers of high-risk populations, and public health and primary care agencies have been sparse in their implementation of nPEP promotion, protocols, and practices. Methods: We conducted a survey of HIV providers (n = 142, response rate = 61%) in Miami-Dade County (Florida) and the District of Columbia that focused on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to the delivery of nPEP. We then analyzed differences in survey responses by site and by history of prescribing nPEP using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: More District of Columbia providers (59.7%) reported ever prescribing nPEP than in Miami (39.5%, P < 0.048). The majority of practices in both cities did not have a written nPEP protocol and rarely or never had patients request nPEP. Multivariable analysis for history of prescribing nPEP was dominated by having patients request nPEP [odds ratio (OR) = 21.53] and the belief that nPEP would lead to antiretroviral resistance (OR = 0.14) and having a written nPEP protocol (OR = 7.49). Discussion: Our findings are consistent with earlier studies showing the underuse of nPEP as a prevention strategy. The significance of having a written nPEP protocol and of patient requests for nPEP speaks to the importance of using targeted strategies to promote widespread awareness of the use of HIV antiretroviral medications as a prevention intervention.
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ABSTRACT: The District of Columbia (DC) has among the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the United States, with 3.2% of the population and 7.1% of black men living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to examine HIV risk behaviors in a community-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in DC. Data were from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. MSM who were 18 years were recruited via venue-based sampling between July 2008 and December 2008. Behavioral surveys and rapid oral HIV screening with OraQuick ADVANCE ½ (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA) with Western blot confirmation on positives were collected. Factors associated with HIV positivity and unprotected anal intercourse were identified. Of 500 MSM, 35.6% were black. Of all men, 14.1% were confirmed HIV positive; 41.8% of these were newly identified HIV positive. Black men (26.0%) were more likely to be HIV positive than white (7.9%) or Latino/Asian/other (6.5%) men (p<0.001). Black men had fewer male sex partners than non-black, fewer had ever engaged in intentional unprotected anal sex, and more used condoms at last anal sex. Black men were less likely to have health insurance, have been tested for HIV, and disclose MSM status to health care providers. Despite significantly higher HIV/AIDS rates, black MSM in DC reported fewer sexual risks than non-black. These findings suggest that among black MSM, the primary risk of HIV infection results from nontraditional sexual risk factors, and may include barriers to disclosing MSM status and HIV testing. There remains a critical need for more information regarding reasons for elevated HIV among black MSM in order to inform prevention programming.AIDS patient care and STDs 10/2010; 24(10):615-22. DOI:10.1089/apc.2010.0111 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) has been recommended to prevent HIV acquisition for nearly 20 years. However, limited behavioral and clinical outcome data exist after men who have sex with men (MSM) present for NPEP. We reviewed the electronic medical records of HIV-uninfected adults who presented for NPEP at a large community health center in Boston between July, 1997 and August, 2013. Data from 894 patients were analyzed, 88.1% of whom were MSM. Consensual unprotected sex was the most common reason for NPEP visits among MSM (64.2%), followed by condom failure (30.6%). The HIV serostatus of the partner was unknown for 64.4% of the MSM, positive with unknown treatment status for 18.1%, positive and not on treatment for 4.1%, and positive and on treatment for 13.4%. Thirty-nine patients subsequently became HIV-infected (4.4%), all of whom were MSM. The MSM-specific HIV incidence after NPEP use was 2.2 cases per 100 person-years. Incident HIV infection was associated with younger age (AHR=0.94; p=0.003), being Latino (AHR=2.44; p=0.044), and/or being African American (AHR=3.43; p=0.046). Repeated NPEP use was not associated with incident HIV infection (AHR=0.67; p=0.26). Younger MSM of color who access NPEP, in particular, may benefit from early HIV risk-reduction and pre-exposure prophylaxis counseling.AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 11/2014; DOI:10.1089/apc.2014.0154 · 3.58 Impact Factor