Tuberculosis (TB) is among the most common infectious diseases and continues as a major global health problem. The scenario is worsened by the emergence and spread of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Cure rates are high for drug sensitive strains of Myobacterium tuberculosis if treatment protocols are adhered to, but treatment of MDR-TB and extensive drug drug-resistant strains is virtually impossible. The treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB relies on the drugs, which are less potent, more toxic and more costly and have to be administered for the longer duration. No new drug had come in to market for last 40 years, but the emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB has spurred interest in the development of novel drugs. For the effective treatment outcome, there is a dire need of new drugs with a different mechanism of action that can tackle both drug sensitive as well as drug-resistant strains. Bedaquiline is one such new drug with unique mechanism of action. Food and Drug Administration has approved bedaquiline for MDR-TB in December 2012. This article reviews the available evidence of efficacy and safety of bedaquiline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of tuberculosis has been increasing substantially on a worldwide basis over the past decade, but no tuberculosis-specific
drugs have been discovered in 40 years. We identified a diarylquinoline, R207910, that potently inhibits both drug-sensitive
and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.06 μg/ml). In mice, R207910 exceeded the bactericidal activities of isoniazid
and rifampin by at least 1 log unit. Substitution of drugs included in the World Health Organization's first-line tuberculosis
treatment regimen (rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide) with R207910 accelerated bactericidal activity, leading to complete
culture conversion after 2 months of treatment in some combinations. A single dose of R207910 inhibited mycobacterial growth
for 1 week. Plasma levels associated with efficacy in mice were well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. Mutants selected
in vitro suggest that the drug targets the proton pump of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New drugs are needed to shorten the duration of tuberculosis treatment. R207910, a diarylquinoline, is very active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis both in vitro and in mice. In healthy volunteers, the coadministration of R207910 and rifampin induced the increased metabolism of R207910, resulting in a 50% reduction in the level of R207910 exposure. We assessed the impact of reducing the dose of R207910 on its efficacy when R207910 was combined with a background regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. Addition of 25 mg/kg of body weight or 12.5 mg/kg R207910 to the background regimen resulted in faster bacterial clearance and culture negativity. The difference in efficacy between the two doses was not statistically significant. The minimal bactericidal dose of R207910 when it was tested as part of the combination was identical to that when it was tested as monotherapy. Because of the drug-drug interaction in humans, the activity of R207910 in humans could be less than that expected from studies with mice. Our data from the mouse model demonstrate that R207910 has significant activity, even when its exposure is reduced by 50% and when it is added to a strong background regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. In killing kinetic studies, the bactericidal effect of R207910 in mice was modest during the first week of treatment, but it increased in the following 3 weeks, while the bactericidal activity of isoniazid was limited to the first week of treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing worldwide incidence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as a threat to public health and tuberculosis (TB) control. Treatment outcomes have varied among studies, and data on long-term survival are still scarce.
To retrospectively assess the burden, clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and long-term survival rate of patients with XDR-TB in a cohort of patients with HIV-negative multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Korea.
Medical records were reviewed of patients newly diagnosed with or retreated for MDR-TB from 2000 to 2002. The cohort was monitored for 3 to 7 years after the initiation of treatment. Initial treatment outcomes and cumulative survival rates were analyzed, and predictors of treatment success and survival were defined.
Of 1,407 patients with MDR-TB 75 (5.3%) had XDR-TB at treatment initiation. The default rate was high (453/1,407; 32%), and patients with XDR-TB had lower treatment success (29.3 vs. 46.2%; P = 0.004) and higher all-cause (49.3 vs. 19.4%; P < 0.001) and TB-related disease mortality (41.3 vs. 11.8%; P < 0.001) than other patients with MDR-TB. The presence of XDR-TB significantly affected treatment success (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.64; P = 0.005), all-cause mortality (hazards ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.91-5.53; P < 0.001), and TB-related mortality (hazards ratio, 4.45; 95% CI, 2.48-8.00; P < 0.001) on multivariate analyses.
XDR-TB occurred in a substantial proportion of patients with MDR-TB in South Korea, and was the strongest predictor of treatment outcomes and long-term survival in patients with MDR-TB. Adequate TB control policies should be implemented to prevent the further development and spread of drug resistance.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 08/2008; 178(10):1075-82. DOI:10.1164/rccm.200801-132OC · 13.00 Impact Factor
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