Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities Predict Progression of Brain Microvascular Disease An Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
ABSTRACT Brain microvascular disease leads to leukoaraiosis and lacunar infarcts and contributes to risk of stroke and cognitive decline. Given a shared pathophysiology, retinal microvascular signs are expected to predict brain microvascular disease progression. We investigated if either leukoaraiosis volume progression measured continuously or combined with incident lacunar infarcts would better demonstrate expected associations with retinal disease than has previously been shown.
Eight hundred thirty participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study aged ≥55 years and without previous stroke received an initial brain magnetic resonance imaging, retinal photography, and, 10 years later, a follow up magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated retinal vascular sign phenotypes as predictors of (1) leukoaraiosis volume increase, and (2) a new score combining leukoaraiosis volume change and incident lacunar infarcts. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were evaluated as confounders and effect modifiers.
Individuals with any retinopathy (3.34 cm(3); 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-5.96) or with arteriovenous nicking (2.61 cm(3); 95% CI, 0.80-4.42) each had greater progression of leukoaraiosis compared with those without these conditions. Any retinopathy (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% CI, 1.71-5.89) or its components-microaneurysms (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.33-7.07) and retinal hemorrhage (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.27-7.20)-as well as arteriovenous nicking (OR, 1.93; 95%, CI 1.24-3.02) and focal arteriolar narrowing (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.59), were associated with a higher quartile of a novel brain microvascular disease score combining leukoaraiosis progression with incident subclinical lacunes.
A novel scoring method revealed associations of retinal signs with leukoaraiosis progression and brain microvascular disease, which have not been shown before.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To analyze the foveal microvasculature of young healthy eyes and older vasculopathic eyes, imaged using in vivo adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography (AOSLO FA). Methods: AOSLO FA imaging of the superficial retinal microvasculature within an 800-µm radius from the foveal center was performed using simultaneous confocal infrared (IR) reflectance (790 nm) and fluorescence (488 nm) channels. Corresponding IR structural and FA perfusion maps were compared to each other to identify nonperfused capillaries adjacent to the foveal avascular zone. Microvascular densities were calculated from skeletonized FA perfusion maps. Results: Sixteen healthy adults (26 eyes; mean age 25 years, range: 21-29) and 6 patients with a retinal vasculopathy (6 eyes; mean age 55 years, range: 44-70) were imaged. At least one nonperfused capillary was observed in 5 of the 16 healthy non-fellow eyes and in 4 of the 6 vasculopathic eyes. Microvascular density of the 16 healthy non-fellow eyes was 42 ± 4.2 mm-1 (range 33-50 mm-1). All 6 vasculopathic eyes had decreased microvascular densities compared to the healthy eye average. Conclusions: AOSLO FA provides an in vivo method for estimating foveal microvascular density and reveals occult nonperfused retinal capillaries. Nonperfused capillaries in healthy young adults may represent a normal variation and/or an early sign of pathology. Although limited, the data presented here is a step towards developing clinically useful microvascular parameters for ocular and/or systemic diseases. Copyright © 2014 by Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 11/2014; 55(12). DOI:10.1167/iovs.14-15136 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered to be at high risk for cardiovascular disease. The identification of carotid atherosclerosis is a validated surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Nurses are key professionals in the improvement and intensification of cardiovascular preventive strategies. The aim is to study the presence of carotid atherosclerosis in a group of asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and no previous clinical cardiovascular disease. A total of 187 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 187 age- and sex-matched subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus were studied in this cross-sectional, observational, cohort study. Standard operational procedures were applied by the nursing team regarding physical examination and carotid ultrasound assessment. Common, bulb, and internal carotid arteries were explored by measuring intima-media thickness and identifying atherosclerotic plaques. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and carotid plaque prevalence were significantly greater in diabetic subjects than in the control group. Carotid plaques and c-IMT were more frequent in men than in women and increased with increasing age. In the multivariate analysis, age, gender, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and hypercholesterolemia were positively associated with c-IMT, whereas age, gender, and weight were positively associated with carotid plaque. The current nurse-led study shows that subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with cardiovascular risk factors.The Journal of cardiovascular nursing 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/JCN.0000000000000236 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been associated with an increased risk for CVD. The present study was designed to test the concept that T2D patients with DR, but without previous cardiovascular (CV) events and with normal renal function, have an increased atherosclerotic burden compared with patients without DR. A cross-sectional study was performed using patients with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 ml/min) and without previous CV events. A total of 312 patients (men, 51%; mean age, 57 yrs; age range 40-75 yrs) were included in the study; 153 (49%) of the patients had DR. B-mode carotid ultrasound imaging was performed for all of the study subjects to measure the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaques in the common carotid artery (CCA), bifurcation and internal carotid artery (ICA). The percentage of carotid plaques in T2D patients with DR was higher than in T2D patients without DR (68% vs. 52.2%, p = 0.0045), and patients with DR had a higher prevalence of ≥2 carotid plaques (44.4% vs. 21.4%; p < 0.0001). No differences were observed in the cIMT measured at different carotid regions between the patients with or without DR. Using multivariate logistic regression (adjustment for major risk factors for atherosclerosis), DR was independently associated with mean-internal cIMT (p = 0.0176), with the presence of carotid plaques (p = 0.0366) and with carotid plaque burden (≥2 plaques; p < 0.0001). The present study shows that DR in T2D patients without CVD and with normal renal function is associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden (presence and number of plaques) in the carotid arteries. These patients may be at a higher risk for future CV events; therefore, an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries should be considered in patients with DR for more careful and individualised CV assessment and follow-up.Cardiovascular Diabetology 12/2015; 14(1):33. DOI:10.1186/s12933-015-0196-1 · 3.71 Impact Factor