Transfusion in critically ill children: indications, risks, and challenges.
ABSTRACT To provide a concise review of transfusion-related issues and practices in the pediatric patient population, with a focus on those issues of particular importance to the care of critically ill children.
Electronic search of the PubMed database using the search terms "pediatric transfusion," "transfusion practices," "transfusion risks," "packed red blood cell transfusion," "white blood cell transfusion," "platelet transfusion," "plasma transfusion," and "massive transfusion" either singly or in combination.
All identified articles published since 2000 were manually reviewed for study design, content, and support for indicated conclusions, and the bibliographies were scrutinized for pertinent references not identified in the PubMed search. Selected studies from this group were then manually reviewed for possible inclusion in this review.
Well-designed studies have demonstrated the benefit of "restrictive" transfusion practices across the entire age spectrum of pediatric patients across a wide spectrum of pediatric illness. However, clinician implementation of the more restrictive transfusion practices supported by these studies is variable. Additionally, the utilization of both platelet and plasma transfusions in either a "prophylactic" or "therapeutic" setting appears to be greater than that supported by published data.
The preponderance of prospective, randomized trials and retrospective analyses support the use of a restrictive packed RBC transfusion policy in most clinical conditions in children. Neonatal transfusions guidelines rely largely on "expert opinion" rather than experimental data. Current transfusion practices for both platelets and coagulant products (e.g., fresh-frozen plasma and recombinant-activated factor VII) are poorly aligned with recommended transfusion guidelines. As with adults, current transfusion practices in children often do not reflect implementation of our current knowledge on the need for transfusion. Greater efforts to implement current evidence-based transfusion practices are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was introduced for blood donation screening in the United States in 1999. This study analyzes temporal trends of these two infections since NAT introduction. Donation data from 1999 to 2008 were analyzed; each donation was tested for antibodies and viral RNA for HIV and HCV. Incidence for first-time (FT) donors was derived by multiplying that among repeat (RP) donors by the ratio of NAT yield rates between FT and RP donors. Incidence for all donors was the weighted mean based on percentage of FT and RP donors. Residual risk (RR) was determined using the window-period model. During the 10-year period approximately 66 million donations were screened with 32 HIV (1:2 million) and 244 HCV (1:270,000) NAT yield donations identified. HCV prevalence among FT donors decreased by 53% for 2008 compared to 1999. HIV and HCV incidence among RP donors increased in 2007 through 2008 compared to 2005 through 2006. During 2007 through 2008, HIV incidence was 3.1 per 10(5) person-years (py), with an RR estimate of 0.68 per 10(6) (1:1,467,000) donations; HCV incidence was 5.1 per 10(5) py, with an RR estimate of 0.87 per 10(6) (1:1,149,000). The increase in HIV incidence was primarily among 16- to 19-year-old, male African American donors and that in HCV was primarily among Caucasian donors of 50 or more years. Donors from the Southern United States had higher incidence rates. HCV prevalence decreased significantly since NAT introduction. The increase in HIV and HCV incidence in 2007 through 2008 warrants continued monitoring and investigation.Transfusion 03/2010; 50(7):1495-504. DOI:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02622.x · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a trial of prophylactic platelet transfusions to evaluate the effect of platelet dose on bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. We randomly assigned hospitalized patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or chemotherapy for hematologic cancers or solid tumors to receive prophylactic platelet transfusions at a low dose, a medium dose, or a high dose (1.1x10(11), 2.2x10(11), or 4.4x10(11) platelets per square meter of body-surface area, respectively), when morning platelet counts were 10,000 per cubic millimeter or lower. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily. The primary end point was bleeding of grade 2 or higher (as defined on the basis of World Health Organization criteria). In the 1272 patients who received at least one platelet transfusion, the primary end point was observed in 71%, 69%, and 70% of the patients in the low-dose group, the medium-dose group, and the high-dose group, respectively (differences were not significant). The incidences of higher grades of bleeding, and other adverse events, were similar among the three groups. The median number of platelets transfused was significantly lower in the low-dose group (9.25x10(11)) than in the medium-dose group (11.25x10(11)) or the high-dose group (19.63x10(11)) (P=0.002 for low vs. medium, P<0.001 for high vs. low and high vs. medium), but the median number of platelet transfusions given was significantly higher in the low-dose group (five, vs. three in the medium-dose and three in the high-dose group; P<0.001 for low vs. medium and low vs. high). Bleeding occurred on 25% of the study days on which morning platelet counts were 5000 per cubic millimeter or lower, as compared with 17% of study days on which platelet counts were 6000 to 80,000 per cubic millimeter (P<0.001). Low doses of platelets administered as a prophylactic transfusion led to a decreased number of platelets transfused per patient but an increased number of transfusions given. At doses between 1.1x10(11) and 4.4x10(11) platelets per square meter, the number of platelets in the prophylactic transfusion had no effect on the incidence of bleeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00128713.)New England Journal of Medicine 02/2010; 362(7):600-13. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0904084 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium were compared to those of conventionally liquid-stored and fresh RBCs. Fresh RBCs were obtained from healthy volunteers. Leukoreduced liquid-stored and thawed deglycerolized RBC units were obtained from the Sanquin Blood Bank. RBCs were tested for aggregability (aggregation index [AI]), deformability (elongation index [EI]), and various hematologic variables. The AI of thawed RBCs was reduced, compared to fresh and liquid-stored RBCs (p<0.05). The EI of stored RBCs was significantly enhanced over a shear stress range of 2.0 to 50Pa compared to fresh RBCs (p<0.05). No significant differences in EI between thawed and 21- or 35-day liquid-stored RBCs were observed. The osmotic fragility, hemolysis, mean cell volume, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration of thawed RBCs were markedly altered, compared to fresh and liquid-stored RBCs (p< 0.05). The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of thawed RBCs was similar to 3- or 21-day liquid-stored and fresh RBCs. Thawed RBCs are more fragile than conventionally liquid-stored and fresh RBC. The freeze-thaw-wash process, however, did not adversely affect the aggregability and deformability or the ATP content of thawed RBCs. Based on the rheologic properties, cryopreserved RBCs are a valuable alternative to liquid-stored RBCs.Transfusion 11/2010; 50(11):2393-401. DOI:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2010.02730.x · 3.57 Impact Factor