Return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in professional soccer players

The Knee (Impact Factor: 1.94). 06/2014; 21(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2014.02.005


The purpose of the study is to investigate time to return to sport and rate of professional sport activity in a homogenous group of competitive soccer players 4 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and rehabilitation.

Twenty-one male professional soccer players (mean age 22.9 ± 5.4 years) undergone non-anatomical double-bundle autologous hamstrings ACL reconstruction and followed the same rehabilitative protocol. Clinical evaluation was performed preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Data regarding return to train and official match, sport activity, complications and revision surgeries were collected at 4-year follow-up.

Laxity test (KT-2000) and total KOOS mean score resulted significantly improved from preoperative status to the 12-month follow-up (p < 0.0001). The KOOS mean value showed a significant progressive improvement form preoperative status to 6-month follow-up (p = 0.0010) as well, while the values collected at 6 and 12-month follow-up resulted comparable (p = 0.2349). They return to official match 186 ± 53 days after surgery. After 12 months, 95% came back to the same activity level performed before injury. Four years after ACL reconstruction, 15 patients (71%) were still playing competitive soccer. One patient (5%) underwent ACL failure and subsequent revision.

The ACL reconstruction with presented technique followed by patient-tailored rehabilitation, allowed 95% and 62% professional male soccer players to return to the same sport activity 1 year and 4 years after surgery respectively. However, 71% were still able to play competitive soccer at final follow-up. Clinical scores were restored after 6 months.

Level of evidence
IV, case series.

54 Reads
  • Source
    • "and Dvorak, 2007). Among these injuries, female players or staff on these teams indicate that knee injuries, particularly anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, occur at a high rate, and ACL injuries require an average of 186 days of rehabilitation before resuming training and competition (Zaffagnini et al., 2014). ACL injuries in soccer are more frequent in women than in men (Arendt and Dick, 1995; Bjordal et al., 1997; Harmon and Dick, 1998; Powell and Barber-Foss, 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body's center of mass (COM) is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events) were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = -0.623, p < .0001, r(2) = 0.388) and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r(2) = 0.755). The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r(2) = 0.953, p < .0001, f(2) = 20.277). These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.
    Journal of Human Kinetics 03/2015; 45(1):71-80. DOI:10.1515/hukin-2015-0008 · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The treatment and rehabilitation procedures of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in elite soccer players are controversial. Points of debate include surgical timing, technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and return-to-sport criteria and timing.
    11/2014; 2(11):1-7. DOI:10.1177/2325967114559892
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allowing a patient to return to sport and unrestricted physical activity after ACL injury and reconstruction is one of the most challenging and difficult decisions an orthopaedic surgeon has to make. Indeed, many factors have to be taken into account before it can be considered safe for a patients to load a reconstructed knee. The current literature contains plenty of studies aimed at evaluating return to sport, and the factors that may affect or predict this outcome, e.g. intrinsic factors like genetics, biology, type of lesion, anatomical features, motivation and psychology, and extrinsic factors such as graft type, surgical technique, rehabilitation protocols, and biological support. It is possible that awareness of these issues could help the clinician to optimise outcomes, and possibly avoid failures too, although as yet no universal criteria for resuming sport have been produced.
    07/2015; 3(1):25-30.
Show more

Similar Publications