Psychiatric Comorbidity of Chronic Daily Headache: Focus on Traumatic Experiences in Childhood, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Suicidality.
ABSTRACT The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (DSM-5) reclassified some mental disorders recently. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in a new section termed "trauma- and stressor-related disorder". Community-based studies have shown that PTSD is associated with a notably high suicidal risk. In addition to previous findings of comorbidity between chronic daily headache (CDH) and both depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, recent data suggest that frequency of childhood maltreatment, PTSD, and suicidality are also increased in CDH. CDH patients with migraine aura are especially at risk of suicidal ideation. Research suggests that migraine attack, aura, frequency, and chronicity may all be related to serotonergic dysfunction. Vulnerability to PTSD and suicidality are also linked to brain serotonin function, including polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). In the present review, we focus on recent advances in knowledge of traumatic experiences in childhood, PTSD, and suicidality in relation to migraine and CDH. We hypothesize that vulnerability to PTSD is associated with migraine attack, migraine aura, and CDH. We further postulate that these associations may explain some of the elevated suicidal risks among patients with migraine, migraine aura, and/or CDH. Field studies are required to support these hypotheses.
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ABSTRACT: Neurotrophic factors have been implicated in hyperalgesia and peripheral levels of these molecules were altered in behavioral and neurological disorders. The objectives of this study were to assess neurotrophic factors levels in migraine patients in comparison with controls, and to investigate whether there was any association between them and clinical parameters. This was a cross-sectional study. We measured serum levels of neurotrophin family members – nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 and 4/5 (NT3 and NT4/5) – and glial cell line-derived factor (GDNF) in patients suffering from migraine and matched controls. One hundred forty-one people were enrolled in this study, seventy-one were migraine patients and seventy were controls. Migraine patients showed more depressive and anxiety symptoms than control individuals as assessed, respectively, by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Chronic and episodic migraine patients showed higher NT4/5 levels than control individuals (P = 0.001). Patients with chronic migraine had lower levels of BDNF that were not influenced by the presence of depressive symptoms (P = 0.02). This is the first report to evaluate NT3 and NT-4/5 levels in migraine patients. Our findings suggest a possible role of neurotrophic factors in migraine pathophysiology.Neuroscience Letters 12/2014; 587:6-10. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.12.022 · 2.06 Impact Factor