Effectiveness of the Cigarette Ignition Propensity Standard in Preventing Unintentional Residential Fires in Massachusetts.
ABSTRACT Objectives. We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law's (FSCL's) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. Methods. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Results. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval = 12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. Conclusions. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 13, 2014: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301837).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship between social conditions and fire mortality rates among children. Retrospective analysis of fire fatalities in children 0 to 14 years old in New Mexico. State Office of the Medical Investigator. All 57 New Mexico children 0 to 14 years old who died from fire-related injuries from 1981 through 1991. Medical investigator and autopsy records were reviewed and abstracted. Demographic and housing figures were obtained from US Census reports. Data were analyzed by chi 2 or by Fisher's exact test, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Two thirds of decedents were male (P = .0014), and three fourths were less than 5 years old (P < .0001). Children living in mobile homes had triple the mortality rate of those in houses or apartments, and children in homes without plumbing (substandard) had more than ten times the mortality rate of those in houses or apartments (P < .0001). Two thirds of the victims in substandard homes were Native American (P < .0001). Errors or negligence of adults occurred in more than half of the deaths. Eighty-two percent of decedents died at the scene; only 11% reached a burn center. Substandard homes are associated with an increased fire mortality rate among children. Strategies to prevent childhood fire fatalities should address housing conditions and adult safety practices. Enhanced prehospital or burn unit care is unlikely to greatly affect childhood fire mortality rates.Annals of Emergency Medicine 03/1993; 22(3):517-22. DOI:10.1016/S0196-0644(05)81935-3 · 4.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fires cause 1% of the global burden of disease. Fire (includes explosion) disasters have immense health, social, and environmental costs. We will provide initial estimates of overall U. S. and global fire tolls from smoking. We tabulated and summarized smoking-related fire and disaster tolls from published documents. We compared those tolls to U.S. fire, burn, and fire death rates per billion cigarettes extrapolated globally. Smoking-attributable percentages of adult and child access to cigarette lighter and match ignitions (lights), and resultant fires, burns, and deaths ignited by young children, were estimated from likely smoking-attributable lights usage. Cigarette plus cigarette lights fire tolls were multiplied times published and estimated fire costs. Smoking is the leading cause of residential or total fire death in all eight countries with available statistics. Smoking is a leading cause of fires in many more countries. Cigarettes cause numerous fire disasters. Cigarette lights cause an estimated 100,000 U.S. and one million global, child-playing fires per year. Cigarette lights fire injuries likely rival U.S., and possibly global, cigarette fire injury numbers. Smoking causes an estimated 30% of U. S. and 10% of global fire death burdens. Smoking's estimated U.S. and global fire costs were $6.95 (sensitivity range $5.34-22.8) and $27.2 (sensitivity range $8.2-89.2) billion, respectively, in 1998 U. S. dollars. Smoking likely causes large global fire tolls. U.S. fire tolls have fallen when smoking decreased. Further reducing smoking can substantially reduce fire and disaster tolls.Preventive Medicine 09/2000; 31(2 Pt 1):91-9. DOI:10.1006/pmed.2000.0680 · 2.93 Impact Factor
Article: Death and injuries from house fires[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We sought to define the factors associated with house fires and related injuries by analyzing the data from population-based surveillance. For 1991 through 1997, we linked the following data for Dallas: records from the fire department of all house fires (excluding fires in apartments and mobile homes), records of patients transported by ambulance, hospital admissions, and reports from the medical examiner of fatal injuries. There were 223 injuries (91 fatal and 132 nonfatal) from 7190 house fires, for a rate of 5.2 injured persons per 100,000 population per year. Rates of injury related to house fires were highest among blacks (relative risk, 2.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 3.6) and in people 65 years of age or older (relative risk, 2.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.5). Census tracts with low median incomes had the highest rates of injury related to house fires (relative risk as compared with census tracts with high median incomes, 8.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.5 to 32.0). The rate of injuries was higher for fires that began in bedrooms or living areas (relative risk, 3.7); that were started by heating equipment, smoking, or children playing with fire (relative risk, 2.6); or that occurred in houses built before 1980 (relative risk, 6.6). Injuries occurred more often in houses without functioning smoke detectors (relative risk, 1.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.4). The prevalence of functioning smoke detectors was lowest in houses in the census tracts with the lowest median incomes (P<0.001). Rates of injuries related to house fires are highest in elderly, minority, and low-income populations and in houses without functioning smoke detectors. Efforts to prevent injuries and deaths from house fires should target these populations.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2001; 344(25):1911-6. DOI:10.1056/NEJM200106213442506 · 54.42 Impact Factor