Article

Bacterial lipodipeptide, Lipid 654, is a microbiome-associated biomarker for multiple sclerosis

Clinical & Translational Immunology 11/2013; 2(11). DOI: 10.1038/cti.2013.11

ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Infectious agents have been suggested to have a role as environmental factors in MS, but this concept remains controversial. Recently, gastrointestinal commensal bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, but mechanisms underlying the relationship of human systemic autoimmunity with the commensal microbiome have yet to be identified. Consistent with the lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and relevant environmental factors in MS, no blood biomarkers have been identified that distinguish MS patients from healthy individuals. We recently identified a unique gastrointestinal and oral bacteria-derived lipodipeptide, Lipid 654, which is produced by commensal bacteria and functions as a human and mouse Toll-like receptor 2 ligand. Using multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry, a critical approach in targeted lipidomics, we now report that Lipid 654 can be recovered in the serum of healthy individuals. Most interestingly, we find that Lipid 654 is expressed at significantly lower levels in the serum of patients with MS compared with both healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer’s disease. These results thus identify for the first time a potential mechanism relating the gastrointestinal and oral commensal microbiome to a human systemic autoimmune disease. In addition, these results also identify a potential etiologic environmental factor and novel clinically relevant serum biomarker for MS.

Full-text

Available from: Xudong Yao, Aug 15, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
110 Views
  • 09/1959; 37(8):911-7. DOI:10.1139/o59-099
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a recognized periodontal pathogen, synthesizes free ceramides as well as other phosphorylated ceramide lipids. The purpose of this study was to separate complex lipids of P. gingivalis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determine the structures and biological activities of the major ceramide classes. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and NMR analyses, three major classes of dihydroceramides were identified in specific HPLC fractions, with all classes containing the same dihydroceramide base structures (3-OH isoC(17:0) in amide linkage to saturated long-chain bases of 17, 18, or 19 carbons). The free dihydroceramide class recovered in HPLC fractions 7-8 revealed little biological activity. HPLC fraction 20 dihydroceramides, substituted with 1-O-phosphoglycerol and isoC(15:0) linked to the hydroxyl of 3-OH isoC(17:0), significantly potentiated interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-mediated prostaglandin secretion and produced marked alterations in fibroblast morphology. HPLC fraction 28 dihydroceramides, substituted with 1-O-phosphoethanolamine, demonstrated little capacity to potentiate IL-1beta-mediated prostaglandin secretion. The novel phosphorylated dihydroceramides synthesized by P. gingivalis demonstrate varying biological activities based on the phosphorylated head group substitution and/or the addition of esterified fatty acid. These results also demonstrate the strong virulence capacity of phosphoglycerol dihydroceramides of P. gingivalis to promote inflammatory factor secretion from IL-1beta-treated fibroblasts and to produce marked alterations in cell morphology in culture.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2005; 45(12):2317-30. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M400278-JLR200 · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a well-characterized model of cell-mediated autoimmunity. TLRs expressed on APCs recognize microbial components and induce innate immune responses, leading to the elimination of invading infectious agents. Certain TLR agonists have been reported to have adjuvant properties in CNS autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We report in this study that TLR3 stimulation by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, a double-stranded RNA analog, suppresses relapsing demyelination in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. Disease suppression is associated with the induction of endogenous IFN-beta and the peripheral induction of the CC chemokine CCL2. These data indicate that a preferential activation of the MyD88-independent, type I IFN-inducing TLR pathway has immunoregulatory potential in this organ-specific autoimmune disease.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2007; 177(11):7505-9. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.177.11.7505 · 5.36 Impact Factor