Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) is a Biomechanical Regulator of Src Activity: Key Role in Endothelial Cell Stress Fiber Formation.

Circulation Research (Impact Factor: 11.02). 02/2014; 114(7). DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.301315
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fluid shear stress (FSS) differentially regulates endothelial cell (EC) stress fiber formation with decreased stress fibers in areas of disturbed-flow (d-flow) compared to steady-flow (s-flow) areas. Importantly, stress fibers are critical for several EC functions including cell shape, mechano-signal transduction, and EC cell-cell junction integrity. A key mediator of s-flow induced stress fiber formation is Src, which regulates downstream signaling mediators such as phosphorylation of cortactin, activity of focal adhesion kinase and small GTPases.
Previously we showed that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP, also VDUP1 and TBP-2) was regulated by FSS; TXNIP expression was increased in d-flow compared to s-flow areas. While TXNIP was originally characterized for its role in redox and metabolic cellular functions, recent reports show important scaffold functions related to its α-arrestin structure. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that TXNIP acts as a biomechanical sensor that regulates Src kinase activity and stress fiber formation.
Using en face immunohistochemistry of the aorta and cultured EC, we show inverse relationship between TXNIP expression and Src activity. Specifically, s-flow increased Src activity and stress fiber formation, while it decreased TXNIP expression. In contrast, d-flow had opposite effects. We studied the role of TXNIP in regulating SHP2 plasma membrane localization and VE-cadherin binding, because SHP2 indirectly regulates dephosphorylation of Src tyrosine 527 that inhibits Src activity. Using immunohistochemistry and immunoprecipitation we found that TXNIP prevented SHP2-VE-cadherin interaction.
In summary, these data characterize a FSS mediated mechanism for stress fiber formation that involves a TXNIP-dependent VE-cadherin-SHP2-Src pathway.

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