Although previous reports have linked preterm birth with insulin resistance in children and adults, it is not known whether altered insulin homeostasis is detectable at birth and tracks from birth through childhood.
To investigate whether preterm birth is associated with elevated plasma insulin levels at birth and whether this association persists into early childhood.
A prospective birth cohort of 1358 children recruited at birth from 1998 to 2010 and followed-up with prospectively from 2005 to 2012 at the Boston Medical Center in Massachusetts.
Random plasma insulin levels were measured at 2 time points: at birth (cord blood) and in early childhood (venous blood). The median age was 1.4 years (interquartile range [IQR], 0.8-3.3) among 4 gestational age groups: full term (≥39 wk), early term (37-38 wk), late preterm (34-36 wk), and early preterm (<34 wk).
The geometric mean of insulin levels at birth were 9.2 µIU/mL (95% CI, 8.4-10.0) for full term; 10.3 µIU/mL (95% CI, 9.3-11.5) for early term; 13.2 µIU/mL (95% CI, 11.8-14.8) for late preterm; and 18.9 µIU/mL (95% CI, 16.6-21.4) for early preterm. In early childhood, these levels were 11.2 µIU/mL (95% CI, 10.3-12.0) for full term; 12.4 µIU/mL (95% CI, 11.3-13.6) for early term; 13.3 µIU/mL (95% CI, 11.9-14.8) for late preterm; and 14.6 µIU/mL (95% CI, 12.6-16.9) for early preterm. Insulin levels at birth were higher by 1.13-fold (95% CI, 0.97-1.28) for early term, 1.45-fold (95% CI, 1.25-1.65) for late preterm, and 2.05-fold (95% CI, 1.69-2.42) for early preterm than for those born full term. In early childhood, random plasma insulin levels were 1.12-fold (95% CI, 0.99-1.25) higher for early term, 1.19-fold (95% CI, 1.02-1.35) for late preterm, and 1.31-fold (95% CI, 1.10-1.52) for early preterm than those born full term. The association was attenuated after adjustment for postnatal weight gain and was not significant after adjustment for insulin levels at birth. Infants ranked in the top insulin tertile at birth were more likely to remain in the top tertile (41.2%) compared with children ranked in the lowest tertile (28.6%) in early childhood.
There was an inverse association between gestational age and elevated plasma insulin levels at birth and in early childhood. The implications for future development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes warrant further investigation.
"Because β-cell function is inhibited by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)84,85), a sudden increase in the oxygen tension at delivery may downregulate HIF1α leading to hyperinsulinemia. In line with the observation that oxygenation of fetal blood improves with gestational ages83), it has been reported that blood insulin levels at birth correlate with the gestational age of the infants: 9.2 µIU/mL for full term; 10.3 µIU/mL for early term; 13.2 µIU/mL for late preterm; and 18.9 µIU/mL for early preterm86). Hyperinsulinemia at birth, therefore, is a common finding in newborns with a lower birth weight. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) have made a remarkable progress over the past 20 years and, currently, it is relatively rare to see patients who are left with severe psychomotor delay. The improvement was made possible by the recent developments in the understanding of the molecular and pathological basis of CHI. Known etiologies include inactivating mutations of the KATP channel genes (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) and HNF4A, HNF1A, HADH, and UCP2 or activating mutations of GLUD1, GCK, and SLC16A1. The understanding of the focal form of KATP channel CHI and its detection by (18)F-fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography have revolutionized the management of CHI, and many patients can be cured without postoperative diabetes mellitus. The incidence of the focal form appears to be higher in Asian countries; therefore, the establishment of treatment systems is even more important in this population. In addition to diazoxide or long-term subcutaneous infusion of octreotide or glucagon, long-acting octreotide or lanreotide have also been used successfully until spontaneous remission. Because of these medications, near-total pancreatectomy is less often performed even for the diazoxide-unresponsive diffuse form of CHI. Other promising medications include pasireotide, small-molecule correctors such as sulfonylurea or carbamazepine, GLP1 receptor antagonists, or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Unsolved questions in this field include the identification of the remaining genes responsible for CHI, the mechanisms leading to transient CHI, and the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous remission of CHI. This article reviews recent developments and hypothesis regarding these questions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an emerging hypothesis that exposure to cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in utero and early childhood could have long-term health consequences. However, there are sparse data on early life exposures to these elements in US populations, particularly in urban minority samples. This study measured levels of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se in 50 paired maternal, umbilical cord, and postnatal blood samples from the Boston Birth Cohort (BBC). Maternal exposure to Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se was 100% detectable in red blood cells (RBCs), and there was a high degree of maternal-fetal transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se. In particular, we found that Hg levels in cord RBCs were 1.5 times higher than those found in the mothers. This study also investigated changes in concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se during the first few years of life. We found decreased levels of Hg and Se but elevated Pb levels in early childhood. Finally, this study investigated the association between metal burden and preterm birth and low birthweight. We found significantly higher levels of Hg in maternal and cord plasma and RBCs in preterm or low birthweight births, compared with term or normal birthweight births. In conclusion, this study showed that maternal exposure to these elements was widespread in the BBC, and maternal-fetal transfer was a major source of early life exposure to Hg, Pb, and Se. Our results also suggest that RBCs are better than plasma at reflecting the trans-placental transfer of Hg, Pb, and Se from the mother to the fetus. Our study findings remain to be confirmed in larger studies, and the implications for early screening and interventions of preconception and pregnant mothers and newborns warrant further investigation.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 23 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.26.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 04/2014; 24(5). DOI:10.1038/jes.2014.26 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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