Objective: To assess the accuracy of electronic health record (EHR)-derived diagnoses in identifying children with incident (i.e., newly diagnosed) ADHD. Method: In 10 large health care organizations, electronic diagnoses data were used to identify all potential cases of incident ADHD among 3- through 9-year-old children. A random sample of records was manually reviewed to determine whether a diagnosis of ADHD was documented in clinician notes. Results: From electronic diagnoses data, a total of 7,362 children with incident ADHD were identified. Upon manual review of 500 records, the diagnosis of incident ADHD was confirmed in clinician notes for 71.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [56.5, 86.4]) of records for 3- through 5-year-old children and 73.6% (95% CI = [65.6, 81.6]) of records for 6- through 9-year-old children. Conclusion: Studies predicated on the identification of incident ADHD cases will need to carefully consider study designs that minimize the likelihood of case misclassification. (J. of Att. Dis. 2014; XX(X) 1-XX).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In both the United States and Europe there has been an increased interest in using comparative effectiveness research of interventions to inform health policy decisions. Prospective observational studies will undoubtedly be conducted with increased frequency to assess the comparative effectiveness of different treatments, including as a tool for “coverage with evidence development,” “risk-sharing contracting,” or key element in a “learning health-care system.” The principle alternatives for comparative effectiveness research include retrospective observational studies, prospective observational studies, randomized clinical trials, and naturalistic (“pragmatic”) randomized clinical trials.
Value in Health 03/2012; 15(2):217-30. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2011.12.010 · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a descriptive profile of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacological treatment patterns in terms of persistence, adherence, augmentation, switching, and dosing changes; and to assess differences in treatment patterns with regard to ADHD medication type, class, and duration of action.
This retrospective claims database analysis used medical data, pharmacy data, and enrollment information to examine treatment patterns among patients with at least one claim with a diagnosis code for ADHD and a filled prescription for ADHD medication (index therapy) during the period 01 January 2004 through 30 September 2006. Treatment persistence and adherence (days supplied/days persistent) were calculated. Dose changes, medication switching, and augmentation were analyzed at three levels of comparison: class (stimulant vs nonstimulant [atomoxetine]), drug type (amphetamine vs methylphenidate), and duration of action (short, intermediate, long). Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test for proportions and Student's t-test or the F-test from one-way ANOVA for means.
Of 60,010 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 58.4% were younger than age 18. Most (78.4%) were prescribed a stimulant as their index therapy. Persistence and adherence were greater for patients on stimulants (vs the nonstimulant), for patients on amphetamines (vs methylphenidates), and for patients on long-acting medications (vs short- and intermediate-acting medications; all p < 0.0001). Index drug dose changes were least likely among individuals taking the nonstimulant (vs stimulants), methylphenidates (vs amphetamines), or intermediate-acting drugs (vs short- and long-acting drugs; all p < 0.0001), and medication switches were more frequent among those on nonstimulants, methylphenidates, or short-acting drugs (all p < 0.0001). Subjects taking long-acting medication were less likely to augment with a drug with a different duration of action than those taking intermediate- or short-acting medication (p < 0.0001). This claims-based study is limited by possible discrepancies between claims and patient behaviors (i.e., a claim for a prescription does not necessarily indicate that the medication was taken as prescribed).
Patients were more stable on treatment compared with their respective comparator groups if their index therapy was a stimulant, long-acting drug, or amphetamine.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 02/2010; 26(4):977-89. DOI:10.1185/03007991003673617 · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined healthcare services used by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with and without psychiatric comorbidities. The study was conducted in a large health maintenance organization in the Pacific Northwest on all continuously enrolled children aged 5 to 12 from January 1997 through July 1998. The study measured all outpatient medical care, specialty mental health care services, and prescription drug dispensings from computer records. Children with ADHD, with and without other psychiatric comorbidities, use more general medical services than do other groups of children, including outpatient visits, acute care (emergency room [ER] urgent care) visits. ADHD and other psychiatric comorbidities lead to higher use of specialty mental health services and greater use of psychotropic medications.
The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 07/2004; 31(3):312-23. DOI:10.1007/BF02287293 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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