Patients with brain contusions: predictors of outcome and relationship between radiological and clinical evolution
ABSTRACT Object Traumatic parenchymal mass lesions are common sequelae of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). They occur in up to 8.2% of all TBI cases and 13%-35% of severe TBI cases, and they account for up to 20% of surgical intracranial lesions. Controversy exists concerning the association between radiological and clinical evolution of brain contusions. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of unfavorable outcome, analyze the evolution of brain contusions, and evaluate specific indications for surgery. Methods In a retrospective, multicenter study, patients with brain contusions were identified in separate patient cohorts from 11 hospitals over a 4-year period (2008-2011). Data on clinical parameters and course of the contusion were collected. Radiological parameters were registered by using CT images taken at the time of hospital admission and at subsequent follow-up times. Patients who underwent surgical procedures were identified. Outcomes were evaluated 6 months after trauma by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Results Multivariate analysis revealed the following reliable predictors of unfavorable outcome: 1) increased patient age, 2) lower Glasgow Coma Scale score at first evaluation, 3) clinical deterioration in the first hours after trauma, and 4) onset or increase of midline shift on follow-up CT images. Further multivariate analysis identified the following as statistically significant predictors of clinical deterioration during the first hours after trauma: 1) onset of or increase in midline shift on follow-up CT images (p < 0.001) and 2) increased effacement of basal cisterns on follow-up CT images (p < 0.001). Conclusions In TBI patients with cerebral contusion, the onset of clinical deterioration is predictably associated with the onset or increase of midline shift and worsened status of basal cisterns but not with hematoma or edema volume increase. A combination of clinical deterioration and increased midline shift/basal cistern compression is the most reasonable indicator for surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been for decades a cornerstone of traumatic brain injury (TBI) management. Nevertheless, in recent years, its usefulness has been questioned in several reports. A group of neurosurgeons and neurointensivists met to openly discuss, and provide consensus on, practical applications of ICP in severe adult TBI. A consensus conference was held in Milan on October 5, 2013, putting together neurosurgeons and intensivists with recognized expertise in treatment of TBI. Four topics have been selected and addressed in pro-con presentations: 1) ICP indications in diffuse brain injury, 2) cerebral contusions, 3) secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC), and 4) after evacuation of intracranial traumatic hematomas. The participants were asked to elaborate on the existing published evidence (without a systematic review) and their personal clinical experience. Based on the presentations and discussions of the conference, some drafts were circulated among the attendants. After remarks and further contributions were collected, a final document was approved by the participants. The group made the following recommendations: 1) in comatose TBI patients, in case of normal computed tomography (CT) scan, there is no indication for ICP monitoring; 2) ICP monitoring is indicated in comatose TBI patients with cerebral contusions in whom the interruption of sedation to check neurological status is dangerous and when the clinical examination is not completely reliable. The probe should be positioned on the side of the larger contusion; 3) ICP monitoring is generally recommended following a secondary DC in order to assess the effectiveness of DC in terms of ICP control and guide further therapy; 4) ICP monitoring after evacuation of an acute supratentorial intracranial hematoma should be considered for salvageable patients at increased risk of intracranial hypertension with particular perioperative features.Acta Neurochirurgica 05/2014; 156(8). DOI:10.1007/s00701-014-2127-4 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increase in the volume of a traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (TICH) is a widely studied phenomenon that has a direct impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the progression of TICH. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1970 adult patients older than 15 years who were consecutively admitted after suffering a closed severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) between January 1987 and November 2013 at a single center. Beginning in 2007, patients with moderate TBIs were also included. 782 patients exhibited one or more TICH on the initial CT scan and met the selection criteria. The main outcome variable was the presence or absence of progression of the TICH. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Factors independently associated with the growth of TICH obtained through logistic regression included the following: an initial volume less than 5 cc (OR 2.42, p < 0.001), cisternal compression (OR 1.95, p < 0.001), decompressive craniectomy (OR 2.18, p < 0.001), age (mean 37.67 vs. 42.95 years; odds ratio [OR] 1.01, p < 0.001), falls as mechanism of trauma (OR 1.72, p = 0.001), multiple TICHs (OR 1.56, p = 0.007), and hypoxia (OR 1.56, p = 0.02). TICH progression occurred with a frequency of 63% in our study. We showed that there is a correlation between TICH growth and some variables, such as multiple TICHs, a lower initial volume, acute subdural hematoma, cisternal compression, older patient age, hypoxia, falls, and decompressive craniectomy.Journal of Neurotrauma 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/neu.2014.3808 · 3.97 Impact Factor