Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Night Eating Syndrome in University Students.

Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 2.75). 01/2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.11.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Most studies of night eating syndrome (NES) fail to control for binge eating, despite moderate overlap between the two conditions. Establishing the independent clinical significance of NES is imperative for it to be considered worthy of clinical attention. We compared students with and without NES on eating disorder symptomatology, quality of life, and mental health, while exploring the role of binge eating in associations.
Students (N = 1,636) ages 18-26 years (M = 20.9) recruited from 10 U.S. universities completed an online survey including the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), Project Eating Among Teens, and the Health-Related Quality of Life-4. NES was diagnosed according to endorsement of proposed diagnostic criteria on the NEQ. Groups (NES vs. non-NES) were compared on all dependent variables and stratified by binge eating status in secondary analyses.
The prevalence of NES in our sample was 4.2%; it decreased to 2.9% after excluding those with binge eating. Body mass index did not differ between groups, but students with NES were significantly more likely to have histories of underweight and anorexia nervosa. In students with NES, EDE-Q scores were significantly higher; purging, laxative use, and compulsive exercise were more frequent; quality of life was reduced; and histories of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and self-injury were more common. Binge eating did not account for all of these differences; the presence of it and NES was associated with additive risk for psychopathology on some items.
NES may be a distinct clinical entity from other DSM-5 eating disorders.

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    ABSTRACT: Night eating syndrome (NES) is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) is the most frequently used instrument for the assessment of NES and available in several languages. The current study aimed at providing and validating a German version of the NEQ using an online study among students (N = 729). The German NEQ had acceptable internal consistency ( = .71) and three-week retest-reliability (r = .77). The four-factor structure of the original version (morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, mood/sleep, nocturnal ingestions) could be replicated, except for one item. Convergent validity was supported by moderate positive correlations with eating pathology, emotional eating, and habitual food cravings. Discriminant validity was supported by small positive correlations with relevant, but not eating-related constructs (eveningness preference, impulsivity). Scores on the NEQ were also positively, but weakly, correlated with body mass index (r = .18). The German version of the NEQ appears to be a useful tool for future investigations on night eating.
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Jun 1, 2014