Paraoxonase 1 activity and lipid profile in schizophrenic patients
This study aimed to investigate the variations of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and lipid profile in patients with schizophrenia and the association of this activity with the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutical characteristics of this population.
Patients and methods
Our cross-sectional study included 140 schizophrenic patients and 119 control subjects aged respectively 37.3 ± 10.4 and 41.4 ± 10 years. PON1 activity was determined using Konelab 30™ equipment (Thermo Electron Corporation). Plasma Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (c-LDL) concentrations were determined using Cobas 6000™ (Roche diagnostics); apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined using Integra 400 plus (Roche diagnostics).
Compared to controls, patients had no significant decrease of PON1 activity and significantly lower ApoA1, c-HDL levels, and significantly higher levels of TG, ApoB, Lp(a) and TC/c-HDL and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios. Furthermore, PON1 activity was correlated with TG/c-HDL ratio. The lowest PON1 activity was noted in obese patients, in paranoid sub-type and in patients treated with combination of typical and atypical antipsychotics without significant difference. Moreover, it was associated with gender and cigarette smoking but not with alcohol consumption status.
Schizophrenic patients had a decrease in PON1 activity and perturbations in their lipid profiles that contribute to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, our results revealed that there was no association between the decrease of PON1 activity and any demographic or clinical characteristics. Therefore, such patients require specific care, particularly with regard to their lipid profile.
Available from: Cristiano Noto
- "Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme synthesized by the liver and bound to highdensity lipoprotein (HDL), protecting HDL particles against OS damage (Precourt et al., 2011). In schizophrenia, there are only few data on PON1, reporting both normal and reduced activity (Gilca et al., 2014; Mabrouk et al., 2014; Unsal et al., 2013). No studies, however, examined PON1 activity in drug naïve individuals separately . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) levels and by lowered antioxidant levels. However, the effect of antipsychotic agents on these processes remains unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the oxidative stress (OS) status in drug naïve first-episode psychotic patients (FEP) compared to healthy controls and to delineate the effects of risperidone on these biomarkers.
51 drug naive FEP patients and 61 healthy controls were enrolled; FEP patients were reassessed 11 weeks after risperidone treatment. Three OS biomarkers, i.e. lipid hydroperoxides - LOOH, NO metabolites - NOx, and advanced oxidation protein products - AOPP, and two antioxidant biomarkers, i.e. total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter - TRAP, and paraoxonase 1 - PON1, were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) were used to measure symptoms severity.
Significantly lower PON1 activity and increased TRAP values were found in FEP patients. There were no significant associations between any of the OS/antioxidant biomarkers and clinical data. Risperidone treatment significantly increased PON1 activity and decreased LOOH levels. These effects of risperidone were not significantly associated with the clinical response and risperidone dosage.
Changes in antioxidant profile, but not in lipid or protein oxidation or increased NO production, were found in drug-naive FEP. Risperidone may have antioxidant effects by lowering lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant defenses against lipid peroxidation related to PON1. None of the biomarkers predicted treatment outcome.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 09/2015; 68:210-216. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.07.003 · 3.96 Impact Factor
Asian Journal of Psychiatry 01/2015; 14. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2015.01.003
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We purpose to verify if paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity may be a marker of cardiovascular risk in a young Tunisian population with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
PON1 activity was measured by a kinetic method using paraoxon as substrate. The other parameters were determined by automated methods.
One hundred and nine children and adolescents with T1D and 97 healthy subjects were involved in this study. PON1 activity and PON1/HDL-cholesterol ratio were significantly decreased in diabetics (303±174 vs. 372±180U/L and 221±139 vs. 298±201U/mmol, P=0.006, P=0.002, respectively) compared to controls. A significant increase in total cholesterol, LDL-c and microalbuminuria was observed in diabetics compared to controls. PON1 activity was decreased by 9.5% in patients with diabetes duration≥6years, by 28.4% for those with fasting glycemia≥7mmol/L (P<0.001), by 14% in those with HbA1c≥8% and by 12.3% for diabetics with dyslipidemia. PON1 activity is reduced when the number of cardiovascular risk factors increases (P<0.001).
PON1 seems to be associated to cardiovascular risk markers in T1D. This result remains to be seen. Nevertheless, improving PON1 activity could be a significant target for reducing cardiovascular risk.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
La Presse Médicale 03/2015; 44(5). DOI:10.1016/j.lpm.2014.10.020 · 1.08 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.