Article

Hypofractionated SBRT Versus Conventionally Fractionated EBRT for Prostate Cancer: Comparison of PSA Slope and Nadir

Radiation Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.36). 02/2014; 9(1):42. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-9-42
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients with early stage prostate cancer have a variety of curative radiotherapy options, including conventionally-fractionated external beam radiotherapy (CF-EBRT) and hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Although results of CF-EBRT are well known, the use of SBRT for prostate cancer is a more recent development, and long-term follow-up is not yet available. However, rapid post-treatment PSA decline and low PSA nadir have been linked to improved clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare the PSA kinetics between CF-EBRT and SBRT in newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer.Materials/methods: 75 patients with low to low-intermediate risk prostate cancer (T1-T2; GS 3 + 3, PSA < 20 or 3 + 4, PSA < 15) treated without hormones with CF-EBRT (>70.2 Gy, <76 Gy) to the prostate only, were identified from a prospectively collected cohort of patients treated at the University of California, San Francisco (1997-2012). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had less than 1 year of follow-up or <3 PSAs. 43 patients who were treated with SBRT to the prostate to 38 Gy in 4 daily fractions also met the same criteria. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated from the completion of RT to 1, 2 and 3 years post-RT.
The median PSA nadir and slope for CF-EBRT was 1.00, 0.72 and 0.60 ng/ml and -0.09, -0.04, -0.02 ng/ml/month, respectively, for durations of 1, 2 and 3 years post RT. Similarly, for SBRT, the median PSA nadirs and slopes were 0.70, 0.40, 0.24 ng and -0.09, -0.06, -0.05 ng/ml/month, respectively. The PSA slope for SBRT was greater than CF-EBRT (p < 0.05) at 2 and 3 years following RT, although similar during the first year. Similarly, PSA nadir was significantly lower for SBRT when compared to EBRT for years 2 and 3 (p < 0.005).
Patients treated with SBRT experienced a lower PSA nadir and greater rate of decline in PSA 2 and 3 years following completion of RT than with CF-EBRT, consistent with delivery of a higher bioequivalent dose. Although follow-up for SBRT is limited, the improved PSA kinetics over CF-EBRT are promising for improved biochemical control.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: I-Chow Hsu, May 14, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
85 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy delivers a heterogeneous dose distribution throughout the prostate gland. There is however limited information regarding the spatial distribution of this dose heterogeneity. To this end, we analyzed the magnitude and location of intraprostatic dose heterogeneity in HDR prostate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 12/2014; 14(2). DOI:10.1016/j.brachy.2014.11.009 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2014; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.6108 · 17.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetics after prostate SBRT have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to analyze the trend in PSA decline following robotic SBRT from a prospective cohort of patients. Material and methods. In total 175 patients were treated definitively for localized prostate cancer to a dose of 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions using robotic SBRT in the absence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). PSA and testosterone were collected at regular intervals following treatment and patients were assessed for biochemical failure and benign PSA bounce. A PSA nadir threshold of 0.5 ng/ml was used as a predictor of long-term disease-free survival. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of disease specific covariates on the likelihood of achieving a PSA nadir less than threshold. PSA kinetics were analyzed a multi-component exponential model accounting for benign and malignant sources of PSA. Results and conclusion. At a median follow-up of 3 years, 70% of patients achieved a PSA nadir below 0.5 ng/ml with a median PSA nadir of 0.3 ng/ml at a median time to nadir of 30 months. In our cohort, 36.2% experienced a benign PSA bounce. Absence of PSA bounce, initial PSA, and testosterone at the time of nadir proved to be significant predictors of achieving a PSA nadir below threshold. PSA kinetics after prostate SBRT were well described with a functional volume model with fitted half-lives of 4.4 and 14.8 months for malignant and benign sources of PSA, respectively. Patients treated with prostate SBRT experience an initial period of rapid PSA decline followed by a slow decline which will likely result in lower PSA nadirs after longer follow-up. The long-term disease specific impacts of these results remain to be determined.
    Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 12/2014; 54(6):1-7. DOI:10.3109/0284186X.2014.983656 · 3.71 Impact Factor