Opiate overdose is an increasingly common cause of death, yet could be easily treated with available opioid antagonists. Opiate use is very common in criminal justice populations, and individuals recently released from prisons or jails are an especially vulnerable group for both overdose and death, particularly in the immediate postrelease period. Participants (N = 478) were individuals under community corrections supervision who were surveyed about their opioid use, overdose history, medical history, and demographics. Most participants were male (67.4 percent) and either African American (52.4 percent) or Caucasian (44.2 percent) with an average age of 35 years (SD = 11.1). Two hundred twenty participants (46 percent) reported lifetime use of opioids, whereas 88 (40 percent) reported experiencing an opioid-related overdose. Relative to those with no history of opioid overdose or lifetime opioid use, participants with a history of opioid overdose were more likely to be Caucasian, female, and report higher educational attainment; more likely to be willing to receive additional training about overdose; and reported double to triple the rates of witnessing an overdose or knowing someone who had died from overdose -78 percent and 69 percent, respectively. The rates of actions taken when witnessing overdose were relatively low: 59 percent had called 911, 33 percent had taken someone to a hospital with 23 percent providing no intervention, and only 4 percent having used an opioid antagonist, naloxone. These findings suggest that while opioid overdose is a significant problem in the criminal justice population, affected individuals are open to instruction in effective strategies, such as naloxone training, to prevent fatal opioid overdose.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the thirty-sixth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2013 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy.
In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American n = 443, 65.8%; women n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated.
African Americans' stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women's stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy.
Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy.