Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Seasonal Influenza Cause Similar illnesses in Children with Sickle Cell Disease
ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a cause of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease (SCD), but its clinical course and acute complications have not been well characterized. We compared RSV to seasonal influenza infections in children with SCD.
We defined cases as laboratory-confirmed RSV or seasonal influenza infection in inpatients and outpatients <18 years of age with SCD from 1 September 1993 to 30 June 2011. We used Fisher's exact test to compare proportions, Student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare continuous variables, and logistic regression to evaluate associations.
We identified 64 children with RSV and 91 with seasonal influenza. Clinical symptoms, including fever, cough, and rhinorrhea were similar for RSV and influenza, as were complications, including ACS and treatments for SCD. In a multivariable logistic regression model, older age (OR 1.2 per year, 95% CI [1.02-1.5], P = 0.04), increased white blood cell count at presentation (OR 1.1 per 1,000/μl increase, 95% CI [1.03-1.3], P = 0.008), and a history of asthma (OR 7, 95% [CI 1.3-37], P = 0.03) were independently associated with increased risk of ACS in children with RSV. The hospitalization rate for children with SCD and RSV (40 per 1,000 <5 years and 63 per 1,000 <2 years) greatly exceeds the general population (3 in 1,000 <5 years).
We conclude that RSV infection is often associated with ACS and similar in severity to influenza infection in febrile children with SCD. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;9999:1-4. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: The acute chest syndrome (ACS), a pneumonia-like illness in sickle cell patients, is one of the most frequent causes of their morbidity and hospitalizations. Repeated ACS events may predict the development of chronic lung disease. ACS is reported as a frequent cause of death in these patients. We examine here the incidence and risk factors of ACS in 3,751 patients with sickle cell disease who were observed prospectively for at least 2 years (19,867 patient-years [pt-yrs]) as part of a multicenter national study group. The ACS, defined by a new pulmonary infiltrate on x-ray, occurred at least once in 1,085 patients (2,100 events). ACS incidence was higher in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease (SS; 12.8/100 pt-yrs) and in patients with sickle cell-β0 thalassemia (9.4/100 pt-yrs), and lower in patients with hemoglobin (Hb) SC disease (5.2/100 pt-yrs) and patients with sickle cell-β+ thalassemia (3.9/100 pt-yrs). α-Thalassemia did not affect the rate of ACS incidence in SS patients. Within each Hb type the incidence was strongly but inversely related to age, being highest in children 2 to 4 years of age (25.3/100 pt-yrs in SS) and decreasing gradually to its lowest value in adults (8.8/100 pt-yrs in SS). In SS children (<10 years of age), we documented an age-related within-person reduction in ACS attack rates. Adults with a higher ACS rate had a higher rate of mortality (from all causes) than those with low ACS rates. This increased rate of mortality might also have contributed to the decline in ACS rate with age. In multivariate analysis, other factors affecting incidence in SS patients were degree of anemia (lower ACS rates in patients with lower steady-state Hb levels) and fetal Hb (lower rates in patients with high fetal Hb). There was also a positive association between ACS rate and steady-state leukocyte count. The relationship of ACS rate to higher steady-state Hb levels in SS patients is unexplained but might be caused by increased blood viscosity.Blood 07/1994; 84(2):643-9. · 10.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). Previous studies reported conflicting pictures of ACS making therapeutic interventions difficult. The Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease prospectively followed 3,751 patients enrolled from birth to 66 years of age for ACS. Data on presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and hospital course were collected. There were 1,722 ACS episodes in 939 patients. Young children (age 2 to 4 years) presented with fever and cough, a negative physical exam, and rarely had pain. Adults were often afebrile and complained of shortness of breath, chills, and severe pain. Upper lobe disease was more common in children; multilobe and lower lobe disease affected adults more often. Severe hypoxia occurred in 18% of adults tested and could not be predicted by examination or laboratory findings. Bacteremia was documented in 3.5% of episodes, but was strongly influenced by age (14% of infants and 1.8% of patients > 10 years). ACS was most common in winter with children having the most striking increase. Transfusion was used less frequently, but earlier in children. Young children were hospitalized for 5.4 days versus 9 days for adults. Fifty percent of adults had a pain event in the 2 weeks preceding ACS and children were more likely to have febrile events. The death rate was four times higher in adults than in children. Fatal cases generally developed rapid pulmonary failure and one third were associated with bacteremia. Age has a striking effect on the clinical picture of ACS. In children, ACS was milder and more likely due to infection, whereas in adults ACS was severe, associated with pain and had a higher mortality rate.Blood 04/1997; 89(5):1787-92. · 10.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acute chest syndrome is the leading cause of death among patients with sickle cell disease. Since its cause is largely unknown, therapy is supportive. Pilot studies with improved diagnostic techniques suggest that infection and fat embolism are underdiagnosed in patients with the syndrome. In a 30-center study, we analyzed 671 episodes of the acute chest syndrome in 538 patients with sickle cell disease to determine the cause, outcome, and response to therapy. We evaluated a treatment protocol that included matched transfusions, bronchodilators, and bronchoscopy. Samples of blood and respiratory tract secretions were sent to central laboratories for antibody testing, culture, DNA testing, and histopathological analyses. Nearly half the patients were initially admitted for another reason, mainly pain. When the acute chest syndrome was diagnosed, patients had hypoxia, decreasing hemoglobin values, and progressive multilobar pneumonia. The mean length of hospitalization was 10.5 days. Thirteen percent of patients required mechanical ventilation, and 3 percent died. Patients who were 20 or more years of age had a more severe course than those who were younger. Neurologic events occurred in 11 percent of patients, among whom 46 percent had respiratory failure. Treatment with phenotypically matched transfusions improved oxygenation, with a 1 percent rate of alloimmunization. One fifth of the patients who were treated with bronchodilators had clinical improvement. Eighty-one percent of patients who required mechanical ventilation recovered. A specific cause of the acute chest syndrome was identified in 38 percent of all episodes and 70 percent of episodes with complete data. Among the specific causes were pulmonary fat embolism and 27 different infectious pathogens. Eighteen patients died, and the most common causes of death were pulmonary emboli and infectious bronchopneumonia. Infection was a contributing factor in 56 percent of the deaths. Among patients with sickle cell disease, the acute chest syndrome is commonly precipitated by fat embolism and infection, especially community-acquired pneumonia. Among older patients and those with neurologic symptoms, the syndrome often progresses to respiratory failure. Treatment with transfusions and bronchodilators improves oxygenation, and with aggressive treatment, most patients who have respiratory failure recover.New England Journal of Medicine 07/2000; 342(25):1855-65. DOI:10.1056/NEJM200006223422502 · 54.42 Impact Factor