Markers of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endothelial Dysfunction and the 20-Year Cumulative Incidence of Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration The Beaver Dam Eye Study
ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE Modifying levels of factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may decrease the risk for visual impairment in older persons. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationships of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This longitudinal population-based cohort study involved a random sample of 975 persons in the Beaver Dam Eye Study without signs of AMD who participated in the baseline examination in 1988-1990 and up to 4 follow-up examinations in 1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2008-2010. EXPOSURES Serum markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2, interleukin-6, and white blood cell count), oxidative stress (8-isoprostane and total carbonyl content), and endothelial dysfunction (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were measured. Interactions with complement factor H (rs1061170), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (rs10490924), complement component 3 (rs2230199), and complement component 2/complement factor B (rs4151667) were examined using multiplicative models. Age-related macular degeneration was assessed from fundus photographs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Early AMD defined by the presence of any size drusen and the presence of pigmentary abnormalities or by the presence of large-sized drusen (≥125-μm diameter) in the absence of late AMD. RESULTS The 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD was 23.0%. Adjusting for age, sex, and other risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio comparing fourth with first quartile, 2.18; P = .005), tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (odds ratio, 1.78; P = .04), and interleukin-6 (odds ratio, 1.78; P = .03) were associated with the incidence of early AMD. Increased incidence of early AMD was associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (odds ratio per SD on the logarithmic scale, 1.21; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We found modest evidence of relationships of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 2, interleukin-6, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to the 20-year cumulative incidence of early AMD independent of age, smoking status, and other factors. It is not known whether these associations represent a cause and effect relationship or whether other unknown confounders accounted for the findings. Even if inflammatory processes are a cause of early AMD, it is not known whether interventions that reduce systemic inflammatory processes will reduce the incidence of early AMD.
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ABSTRACT: IL-6 plays an important role in various inflammatory ocular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Müller cells are the major source of inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, in the retina. However, the mechanism of regulating IL-6 production in these cells remains unclear. Examination of signalling pathways in human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1 cell line) cultured with IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF, IFN-γ, glucose or mannitol showed that IL-1β was the most potent stimulator of IL-6 production. In addition, IL-1 β also increased NF-κB p50 protein level and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and c-Jun. Induction of IL-6 production by IL-1β was significantly reduced by addition of p38 MAPK (SB203580), MEK1/2 (U0126) or NF-κB (BAY11-7082) inhibitors, with the highest effect being observed with SB203580. To explore the specific elements in IL-6 promoter responsible for IL-1β-induction of IL-6 expression, a series of plasmids bearing various IL-6 promoter mutations were transiently expressed in MIO-MI cells cultured in the presence or absence of IL-1β (10ng/ml) and/or SB203580 (10µM). Results showed that IL-6 promoter activity of the parent pIL-6-Luc651 was significantly enhanced by IL-1β, but the level was significantly attenuated by SB203580. Furthermore, the IL-6 promoter activity was also reduced upon deletion of NF-κB, AP-1 or C/EBP binding sites, with NF-κB deletion being the greatest. These results are the first demonstration that IL-1β induces IL-6 production in Müller cells by activation of IL-6 promoter activity predominantly through the p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway.Experimental Cell Research 09/2014; 331(1). DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.08.040 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old). AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension). In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species) have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2) that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines), immune cells (macrophages), and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression.Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2014; 2014:582842. DOI:10.1155/2014/582842 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in older adults. Anti-retinal autoantibodies (AAbs) have been found in individuals with AMD. The goal of the study was to determine the AAb specificity in different stages of AMD, and determine whether there is a prevalent AAb signature. Sera of 134 participants in the Age-related Eye Disease Study were analyzed for anti-retinal AAbs by western blotting. The subjects were classified by diagnostic subgroups based upon their clinical classification: No AMD, Intermediate AMD, and Late AMD - geographic atrophy (GA) and Late AMD - neovascular (NV). The presence of anti-retinal AAb was detected in 58% patients with Intermediate and Late AMD, and 54% of those with no AMD. AAbs bound to fifteen different retinal antigens. Most individuals had 1 specific AAbs (67%), with the remainder having 2 to 4 different AAbs. Over 40% of patients with Intermediate AMD, and 46% of those with GA had anti-enolase AAbs, compared with 29% of individuals with NV and 29% with no AMD. Different AAbs signatures related to NV as compared to GA and/or Intermediate AMD were distinguished. Anti-40-kDa (10%) and 42-kDa (16%) autoantibodies were associated with Intermediate AMD, while anti-30-kDa AAbs (23%) were primarily present in GA. Anti-32-kDa (12%), 35-kDa (21%), and 60-kDa (8%) AAbs were more frequent in NV AMD. A unique AAb pattern for each of the disease subgroups was present when AMD progressed from the intermediate to the late forms of severity. Differences in the frequency of specific AAbs between AMD subgroups suggested that they may participate in pathogenicity of AMD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations in the larger cohort and individual AMD patients over time.BMC Ophthalmology 12/2014; 14(1):154. DOI:10.1186/1471-2415-14-154 · 1.08 Impact Factor