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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate how two chronically replicating viruses, TT virus (TTV) and TTV-like mini virus (TLMV), interact with host defence systems. Successive serum samples from three groups of subjects, undergoing modifications of their antiviral defence, were tested by real-time PCR to measure changes in viral titers, and by sequence analyses to indicate whether increases in viremia could be attributed to infection with an unfamiliar strain: 1) in patients receiving immunosuppressants subsequent to kidney transplantation, viral titers tended to increase; 2) in soldiers undergoing extreme training known to cause immunosuppression, insignificant increases in titers were observed; and 3) interferon treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus caused a temporary decrease in TTV and TLMV titers. Increases in viremia were associated only occasionally with the appearance of novel strains. The above results add to knowledge on how these viruses are influenced by the host.
    Journal of Medical Virology 06/2003; 70(1):177-82. DOI:10.1002/jmv.10356 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a powerful predictive and prognostic biomarker. We describe how the use of next-generation sequencing can provide a novel method for the detection of HPV in DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Using this methodology in a cohort of 44 head and neck tumors, we identified the samples that contained HPV sequences, the viral subtype involved, and a direct readout of viral load. Specificity of HPV detection by sequencing compared to traditional detection methods using either PCR or p16 immunohistochemistry was 100%. Sensitivity was 50% when either compared to PCR [confidence interval (CI) = 29% to 71%] or 75% when compared to p16 (CI = 47% to 91%). In addition, we demonstrate the ability of next-generation sequencing to detect other HPV subtypes that would not have been detected by traditional methods, and we demonstrated the ability to apply this method to any tumor and any virus in a panel of eight human cancer cell lines. This methodology also provides a tumor genomic copy number karyogram, and in the samples analyzed here, a lower level of chromosome instability was detected in HPV-positive tumors compared to HPV-negative tumors, as observed in previous studies. Thus, the use of next-generation sequencing for the detection of HPV provides a multiplicity of data with clinical significance in a single test.
    The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 03/2012; 14(2):104-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jmoldx.2011.10.003 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) shows a strongly increased incidence in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) and AIDS patients, suggesting an infectious etiology. The role of certain viruses, i.e., cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs), in NMSC in immunosuppressed patients remains controversial. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which was recently identified using high-throughput sequencing, has been linked to cutaneous proliferations. Here, we aimed to identify novel or known viral sequences at the transcript level in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from OTR by using 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing, which can produce long reads (~400 bp) and thus is better suited for the analysis of unknown sequences than other sequencing platforms. cDNA libraries from three OTR SCC biopsies were generated and submitted to next-generation sequencing using a 454 platform. Bioinformatic analysis included digital transcriptome subtraction and--in parallel-reference mapping as an alternative way for depleting human sequences. All control sequences introduced for bioinformatics analysis were recovered correctly. Among 717,029 454-sequenced transcripts, nearly all identified viral reads were derived from phages. Bacterial sequences originated from the skin flora or environmental sources. Our study did not reveal any transcripts of known oncogenic or related unknown human viruses. These findings suggest that there is no abundant expression of known human viruses, or viruses with a high degree of homology to known human viruses, in cutaneous SCCs of OTR. Further studies are required to exclude the presence of viruses in NMSC, which cannot easily be identified on the basis of sequence homology to known viruses.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 131(7):E1173-9. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27581 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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