Abstract 5464: Genotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes at occupationally relevant doses

Particle and Fibre Toxicology (Impact Factor: 7.11). 01/2014; 11(1):6. DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-11-6
Source: PubMed


Carbon nanotubes are commercially-important products of nanotechnology; however, their low density and small size makes carbon nanotube respiratory exposures likely during their production or processing. We have previously shown mitotic spindle aberrations in cultured primary and immortalized human airway epithelial cells exposed to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). In this study, we examined whether multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) cause mitotic spindle damage in cultured cells at doses equivalent to 34 years of exposure at the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). MWCNT induced a dose responsive increase in disrupted centrosomes, abnormal mitotic spindles and aneuploid chromosome number 24 hours after exposure to 0.024, 0.24, 2.4 and 24 mug/cm2 MWCNT. Monopolar mitotic spindles comprised 95% of disrupted mitoses. Three-dimensional reconstructions of 0.1 mum optical sections showed carbon nanotubes integrated with microtubules, DNA and within the centrosome structure. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a greater number of cells in S-phase and fewer cells in the G2 phase in MWCNT-treated compared to diluent control, indicating a G1/S block in the cell cycle. The monopolar phenotype of the disrupted mitotic spindles and the G1/S block in the cell cycle is in sharp contrast to the multi-polar spindle and G2 block in the cell cycle previously observed following exposure to SWCNT. One month following exposure to MWCNT there was a dramatic increase in both size and number of colonies compared to diluent control cultures, indicating a potential to pass the genetic damage to daughter cells. Our results demonstrate significant disruption of the mitotic spindle by MWCNT at occupationally relevant exposure levels.

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Available from: Linda M Sargent, Feb 05, 2014
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    • "Tumor invasion has been shown to be associated with centrosome disruption and rapidly evolving errors in chromosome number (D'Assoro et al., 2002; Lingle et al., 2002; Pitot, 1993). As MWCNT in vitro have been shown to be bioactive and have effects on centrosome fragmentation, disruption of the cell cycle and errors in chromosome number (Siegrist et al., 2014), these pathways may be reflective of the cytotoxic and aneugenic effects of MWCNT. The top five canonical pathways associated with the MCA+MWCNT group are involved in lipid metabolism and glycolysis; the inflammatory response ; cell proliferation, invasion and tumor immune evasion; and leukocyte migration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in mice results in inflammation, fibrosis and the promotion of lung adenocarcinoma; however, the molecular basis behind these pathologies is unknown. This study determined global mRNA and miRNA profiles in whole blood from mice exposed by inhalation to MWCNT that correlated with the presence of lung hyperplasia, fibrosis, and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Six-week-old, male, B6C3F1 mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the DNA-damaging agent methylcholanthrene (MCA, 10 µg g(-1) body weight) or vehicle (corn oil). One week after injections, mice were exposed by inhalation to MWCNT (5 mg m(-3) , 5 hours per day, 5 days per week) or filtered air (control) for a total of 15 days. At 17 months post-exposure, mice were euthanized and examined for the development of pathological changes in the lung, and whole blood was collected and analyzed using microarray analysis for global mRNA and miRNA expression. Numerous mRNAs and miRNAs in the blood were significantly up- or down-regulated in animals developing pathological changes in the lung after MCA/corn oil administration followed by MWCNT/air inhalation, including fcrl5 and miR-122-5p in the presence of hyperplasia, mthfd2 and miR-206-3p in the presence of fibrosis, fam178a and miR-130a-3p in the presence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma, and il7r and miR-210-3p in the presence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma, among others. The changes in miRNA and mRNA expression, and their respective regulatory networks, identified in this study may potentially serve as blood biomarkers for MWCNT-induced lung pathological changes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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    ABSTRACT: Engineered carbon nanotubes are currently used in many consumer and industrial products such as paints, sunscreens, cosmetics, toiletries, electronic processes and industrial lubricants. Carbon nanotubes are among the more widely used nanoparticles and come in two major commercial forms, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and the more rigid, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The low density and small size of these particles makes respiratory exposures likely. Many of the potential health hazards have not been investigated, including their potential for carcinogenicity. We, therefore, utilized a two stage initiation/promotion protocol to determine whether inhaled MWCNT act as a complete carcinogen and/or promote the growth of cells with existing DNA damage. Six week old, male, B6C3F1 mice received a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of either the initiator methylcholanthrene(MCA, 10 mug/g BW, i.p.), or vehicle (corn oil). One week after i.p. injections, mice were exposed by inhalation to MWCNT (5 mg/m3, 5 hours/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (controls) for a total of 15 days. At 17 months post-exposure, mice were euthanized and examined for lung tumor formation. Twenty-three percent of the filtered air controls, 26.5% of the MWCNT-exposed, and 51.9% of the MCA-exposed mice, had lung bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and lung adenocarcinomas. The average number of tumors per mouse was 0.25, 0.81 and 0.38 respectively. By contrast, 90.5% of the mice which received MCA followed by MWCNT had bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and adenocarcinomas with an average of 2.9 tumors per mouse 17months after exposure. Indeed, 62% of the mice exposed to MCA followed by MWCNT had bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinomas compared to 13% of the mice that received filtered air, 22% of the MCA-exposed, or 14% of the MWCNT-exposed. Mice with early morbidity resulting in euthanasia had the highest rate of metastatic disease. Three mice exposed to both MCA and MWCNT that were euthanized early had lung adenocarcinoma with evidence of metastasis (5.5%). Five mice (9%) exposed to MCA and MWCNT and 1 (1.6%) exposed to MCA developed serosal tumors morphologically consistent with sarcomatous mesotheliomas, whereas mice administered MWCNT or air alone did not develop similar neoplasms. These data demonstrate that some MWCNT exposures promote the growth and neoplastic progression of initiated lung cells in B6C3F1 mice. In this study, the mouse MWCNT lung burden of 31.2 mug/mouse approximates feasible human occupational exposures. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that caution should be used to limit human exposures to MWCNT.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 01/2014; 11(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1743-8977-11-3 · 7.11 Impact Factor
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