Beyond Heart Transplantation: Potentials and Problems of the Shape Memory Alloy Fibers in the Treatment of Heart Failure
ABSTRACT Heart failure can be treated with devices that mechanically support the circulation. The improvement of these devices would benefit many patients, especially those refractory to maximal pharmacological treatment and ineligible for heart transplantation. This study examined whether the shape memory alloy fibers, which are fibers that contract when electric current flows through them and relax passively when that flow is interrupted, can be wrapped around the failing heart and assist in its pumping action. A band of shape memory alloy fibers was wrapped around a silicon cylindrical chamber which simulated a dilated heart and its pumping action was tested in a circulatory mockup. This rudimentary device was innovatively controlled by pulse width modulation. The band was made of only 6 fibers but yet produced the considerable pressure of 20mmHg and a stroke volume of 11.8ml with modest energy demands. A shape memory alloy device could assist a severely failing heart but there are limiting factors to overcome before designing highly effective devices.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is currently advocated for treating refractory cardiac arrest. Direct Mechanical Ventricular Actuation (DMVA) is an alternative method that does not contact the blood and has other unique advantages for providing resuscitative circulatory support, including rapid application and relative technical simplicity. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic changes in the heart following resuscitation with either CPB or DMVA. Dogs (n = 22) received 1 hr of CPB (n = 11) or DMVA (n = 11) following a 12.5 min cardiac arrest. All deaths [4/11 (CPB) vs. 2/11 (DMVA), p = 0.31] occurred during the initial 24 postoperative hours. At 7 days, survivors had magnetic resonance imaging to determine cardiac ejection fraction [46% (CPB) vs. 51% (DMVA), p = 0.39], as well as the presence of cardiac wall motion abnormalities [50% (CPB) vs. 33% (DMVA), p = 0.57] and gross cardiac lesions [17% (CPB) vs. 17% (DMVA)]. The survivor's hearts were then extirpated, fixed, and examined for gross lesions [2/7 (CPB) vs. 0/9 (DMVA), p = 0.17]. Transmural sections of the anterior and posterior papillary muscles were histologically evaluated. The severity and extent of epicardial fibrosis and focal myocyte necrosis did not differ between groups. These data demonstrate that DMVA does not cause more myocardial trauma than CPB when used to provide resuscitative circulatory support. Therefore, the unique attributes of DMVA may improve resuscitation outcome in patients who suffer refractory cardiac arrest, without additional risk of cardiac injury.ASAIO Journal 04/1992; 38(2):75-81. DOI:10.1097/00002480-199204000-00002 · 1.52 Impact Factor
- Circulation Research 01/1972; 29(6):610-5. DOI:10.1161/01.RES.29.6.610 · 11.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the pattern of global and regional left ventricular long axis motion during early diastole in patients with ischaemic heart disease with and without myocardial infarction using magnetic resonance velocity mapping. Prospective study of 26 patients with a history of myocardial infarction (age 29-78, mean 55 years) and 21 patients with coronary artery disease without infarction (age range 39-71, mean 58 years). Values were compared with a control group (19 controls, age 35-76, mean 52 years) with a low likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Regional long axis velocity varied with time and position around the ventricle. All measurements were taken at the time of maximum early diastolic long axis velocity. Patients with coronary artery disease without infarction had lower values for maximum (mean (SD)) (99 (30) v 125 (33) mm/s, P < 0.05) and mean peak early diastolic wall motion (63 (13) v 82 (22) mm/s, P < 0.05) than controls. The coefficient of variation showed greater inhomogeneity of relaxation in patients than in controls (38 (18)% v 27 (10)%). All values were lower in patients with previous infarction than in patients with coronary artery disease without infarction and normal subjects. In patients with previous myocardial infarction the maximum (mean (SD)) early diastolic velocity was 80 (22) mm/s (P < 0.01 compared with controls and P < 0.05 compared with patients without infarction) and the mean (SD) velocity was 47 (18) mm/s (P < 0.01 compared with controls). The coefficient of variation was greater (52 (33)%) than for controls (P < 0.05) and patients with coronary artery disease without infarction. 18 of 26 patients with previous myocardial infarction and 13 of 21 patients with coronary artery disease without infarction had regional abnormalities corresponding to areas of fixed or reversible ischaemia on exercise electrocardiography or thallium myocardial perfusion tomography. Magnetic resonance velocity mapping can be used to assess regional long axis myocardial velocity. Ischaemic heart disease causes alterations in the patterns of left ventricular long axis velocity during early diastole.Heart 10/1994; 72(4):332-8. DOI:10.1136/hrt.72.4.332 · 6.02 Impact Factor