Perioperative pleiotropic statin effects in general surgery

Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.37). 11/2013; 155(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.surg.2013.11.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence suggests that statins may decrease inflammation, airway hyperreactivity, and hypercoagulability while improving revascularization mediated by cholesterol-independent pathways. This study evaluated whether the preoperative use of statins is associated with decreased postoperative major noncardiac complications in noncardiac procedures.
This was a single-institution study of noncardiac operations performed from 2005 to 2010. The use of statins was identified from electronic medical records and merged with local National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Preoperative statin exposure was defined as statin use before operation, as documented by admission medication reconciliation and outpatient or pharmacy records. The primary end point was major noncardiac complications, and secondary end points included respiratory, infectious (sepsis and organ space infection) and complications of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each end point while we controlled for clinical covariates meeting P < .10 on bivariate analysis.
Preoperative statin use was present in 10.5% (n = 814) of 7,777 total cases. Procedure type included general operation (n = 2,605, 33.5%), breast/endocrine (n = 739, 9.5%), colorectal (n = 1,533, 19.7%), hepatobiliary/pancreatic (n = 397, 5.1%), orthopedic (n = 205, 2.6%), skin/ear-nose- throat (145, 1.9%), thoracic (n = 53, 0.7%), upper gastrointestinal (n = 651, 8.4%), and vascular cases (1,449, 18.6%). On multivariable analysis, the use of statins was associated with decreased major, noncardiac complications (odds ratio [OR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.49-0.92, P < .001), respiratory complications (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.50-0.79, P = .017), VTE (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.98, P = .044), and infectious complications (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.94, P = .023).
The preoperative use of statins is independently associated with decreased risk of major complications. This effect is likely driven by reduction in respiratory, VTE, and infectious complication rates. These results warrant future clinical trials to assess the perioperative benefit of statin use in noncardiac procedures.

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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Hypercholesterolemia is common among people older than 80 years. Substantial functional heterogeneity exists among older patients, and decision making for statin use differs in older patients relative to younger ones. OBJECTIVE To discuss the presentation, modifying factors, and treatment of hypercholesterolemia (usually with statins) among persons older than 80 years. EVIDENCE REVIEW MEDLINE and other sources were searched from January 1990 to June 2014. Personal libraries and a hand search of reference lists from guidelines and reviews from January 2000 to June 2014 were also used. FINDINGS Norandomized clinical trials (RCTs) of statin or any other hypocholesterolemic medication included persons older than 80 years at baseline. Findings from 75- to 80-year-old patients enrolled in RCTs and information from observational studies support statin treatment for secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and probably in patients with diabetes without ASCVD. Harms from statin drugs are not increased in older patients, so the use of these agents for primary prevention is possible. Because people older than 80 years are biologically heterogeneous with varying life expectancy, may have frailty or comorbid conditions, and may take multiple medications, the decision to treat with statins must be individualized. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Ideally, treatment of hypercholesterolemia for patients at risk of ASCVD should start before they turn 80 years old. No RCT evidence exists to guide statin initiation after age 80 years. Decisions to use statins in older individuals are made individually and are not supported by high-quality evidence.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2014; 312(11):1136-1144. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.10924


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Mar 22, 2015