Article

The early inflammatory response after flexor tendon healing: A gene expression and histological analysis

Journal of Orthopaedic Research (Impact Factor: 2.97). 05/2014; 32(5). DOI: 10.1002/jor.22575
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite advances in surgical techniques over the past three decades, tendon repairs remain prone to poor clinical outcomes. Previous attempts to improve tendon healing have focused on the later stages of healing (i.e., proliferation and matrix synthesis). The early inflammatory phase of tendon healing, however, is not fully understood and its modulation during healing has not yet been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to characterize the early inflammatory phase of flexor tendon healing with the goal of identifying inflammation-related targets for future treatments. Canine flexor tendons were transected and repaired using techniques identical to those used clinically. The inflammatory response was monitored for 9 days. Temporal changes in immune cell populations and gene expression of inflammation-, matrix degradation-, and extracellular matrix-related factors were examined. Gene expression patterns paralleled changes in repair-site cell populations. Of the observed changes, the most dramatic effect was a greater than 4,000-fold up-regulation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory factor IL-1β. While an inflammatory response is likely necessary for healing to occur, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines may result in collateral tissue damage and impaired tendon healing. These findings suggest that future tendon treatment approaches consider modulation of the inflammatory phase of healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

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    I.Andia, Eva Rubio-Azpeitia, N.Maffulli
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma therapies for tendinopathy appear to provide moderate pain reduction. However, the biological mechanisms behind the observed clinical effects remain poorly characterized. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to explore whether platelet-rich plasma modifies the inflammatory/angiogenic status of already inflamed tenocytes by examining (1) gene expression; (2) modulation of chemokine and interleukin secretion; and (3) differences between healthy and tendinopathic tenocytes. METHODS: Cells from both healthy and tendinopathic tendons were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1ß and after treated with platelet-rich plasma. Modifications in the expression of selected genes were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and changes in secretion of angiogenic/inflammatory molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Platelet-rich plasma-induced changes in tendinopathic cells were compared with normal after normalizing platelet-rich plasma data against IL-1ß status in each specific sample. RESULTS: In IL-1ß-exposed cells, platelet-rich plasma downregulates expression of IL-6/CXCL-6 (mean, 0.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.005-0.025; p = 0.026), IL-6R (mean, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.27-0.95; p = 0.029), and IL-8/CXCL-8 (mean, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.007-0.023; p = 0.026). Secretion of IL-6/CXCL6, 0.35 (95% CI, 0.3-0.4; p = 0.002), IL-8/CXCL8, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7; p = 0.01), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2, 0.40 (95% CI, 0.2-0.6; p = 0.001) was reduced by platelet-rich plasma, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor increased by twofold, (95% CI, 1.7-2.3; p < 0.001). RANTES/CCL5 increased by10-fold (95% CI, 4-17) and hepatocyte growth factor by 21-fold (95% CI, 0.2-42) in tendinopathic and by 2.3-fold (95% CI, 2-3) and threefold (95% CI, 1-5) in normal cells (p = 0.005 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Platelet-rich plasma induces an immunomodulatory and proangiogenic phenotype consistent with healing mechanisms with few differences between tendinopathic and normal cells. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Platelet-rich plasma injections in pathological and nearby tissue might help to recover tendon homeostasis
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 02/2015; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage-driven inflammation, a key feature of the early period following tendon repair, but excessive inflammation has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Modulation of the inflammatory environment using molecular or cellular treatments may provide a means to enhance tendon healing. To examine the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages on tendon fibroblasts (TF), we established in vitro models of cytokine and macrophage-induced inflammation. Gene expression, protein expression, and cell viability assays were used to examine TF responses. In an effort to reduce the negative effects of inflammatory cytokines on TFs, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) were incorporated into the model and their ability to modulate inflammation was investigated. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and macrophages of varying phenotypes induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors and matrix degradation factors and down-regulation of factors related to extracellular matrix formation by TFs in culture. ASCs did not suppress these presumably negative effects induced by IL-1β. However, ASC co-culture with M1 (pro-inflammatory) macrophages successfully suppressed the effects of M1 macrophages on TFs by inducing a phenotypic switch from a pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype to an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype, thus resulting in exposure of TFs to lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)). These findings suggest that IL-1β and M1 macrophages are detrimental to tendon healing and that ASC-mediated modulation of the post-operative inflammatory response may be beneficial for tendon healing.
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy 04/2015; 6(1):74. DOI:10.1186/s13287-015-0059-4 · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Platelet-rich plasma therapies for tendinopathy appear to provide moderate pain reduction. However, the biological mechanisms behind the observed clinical effects remain poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to explore whether platelet-rich plasma modifies the inflammatory/angiogenic status of already inflamed tenocytes by examining (1) gene expression; (2) modulation of chemokine and interleukin secretion; and (3) differences between healthy and tendinopathic tenocytes. Cells from both healthy and tendinopathic tendons were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1ß and after treated with platelet-rich plasma. Modifications in the expression of selected genes were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and changes in secretion of angiogenic/inflammatory molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Platelet-rich plasma-induced changes in tendinopathic cells were compared with normal after normalizing platelet-rich plasma data against IL-1ß status in each specific sample. In IL-1ß-exposed cells, platelet-rich plasma downregulates expression of IL-6/CXCL-6 (mean, 0.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.005-0.025; p = 0.026), IL-6R (mean, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.27-0.95; p = 0.029), and IL-8/CXCL-8 (mean, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.007-0.023; p = 0.026). Secretion of IL-6/CXCL6, 0.35 (95% CI, 0.3-0.4; p = 0.002), IL-8/CXCL8, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.5-0.7; p = 0.01), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2, 0.40 (95% CI, 0.2-0.6; p = 0.001) was reduced by platelet-rich plasma, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor increased by twofold, (95% CI, 1.7-2.3; p < 0.001). RANTES/CCL5 increased by10-fold (95% CI, 4-17) and hepatocyte growth factor by 21-fold (95% CI, 0.2-42) in tendinopathic and by 2.3-fold (95% CI, 2-3) and threefold (95% CI, 1-5) in normal cells (p = 0.005 for both). Platelet-rich plasma induces an immunomodulatory and proangiogenic phenotype consistent with healing mechanisms with few differences between tendinopathic and normal cells. Platelet-rich plasma injections in pathological and nearby tissue might help to recover tendon homeostasis.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 02/2015; 473(5). DOI:10.1007/s11999-015-4179-z · 2.88 Impact Factor

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