One-Step Surgery With Multipotent Stem Cells for the Treatment of Large Full-Thickness Chondral Defects of the Knee
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Chondral lesions in athletically active patients cause considerable morbidity, and treatment with existing cell-based therapies can be challenging. Bone marrow has been shown as a possible source of multipotent stem cells (MSCs) with chondrogenic potential and is easy to harvest during the same surgical procedure. PURPOSE:To investigate the clinical outcome in a group of active patients with large full-thickness chondral defects of the knee treated with 1-step surgery using bone marrow-derived MSCs and a second-generation matrix. STUDY DESIGN:Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS:From January 2007 to February 2010, 25 patients (average age, 46.5 years) with symptomatic large chondral defects of the knee (International Cartilage Repair Society grade 4) who underwent cartilage transplantation with MSCs and a collagen type I/III matrix were followed up for a minimum of 3 years. The average lesion size was 8.3 cm(2). Coexisting injuries were treated during the same surgical procedure in 18 patients. All patients underwent a standard postoperative rehabilitation program. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations at 1-year, 2-year, and final follow-up included radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm, Marx, and Tegner scores. Seven patients underwent second-look arthroscopic surgery, with 4 consenting to a tissue biopsy. RESULTS:No patients were lost at final follow-up. The average preoperative values for the evaluated scores were significantly improved at final follow-up (P < .001): VAS, 5.4 ± 0.37 to 0.48 ± 0.19; IKDC subjective, 37.92 ± 4.52 to 81.73 ± 2.42; KOOS pain, 61.04 ± 3.95 to 93.32 ± 1.92; KOOS symptoms, 55.64 ± 3.23 to 89.32 ± 2.32; KOOS activities of daily living, 63.96 ± 4.48 to 91.20 ± 2.74; KOOS sports, 34.20 ± 5.04 to 80.00 ± 3.92; KOOS quality of life, 32.20 ± 4.43 to 83.04 ± 3.37; Lysholm, 46.36 ± 2.25 to 86.52 ± 2.73; Marx, 3.00 ± 0.79 to 9.04 ± 0.79; and Tegner, 2.12 ± 0.32 to 5.64 ± 0.26. Patients younger than 45 years of age and those with smaller or single lesions showed better outcomes. The MRI scans showed good stability of the implant and complete filling of the defect in 80% of patients, and hyaline-like cartilage was found in the histological analysis of the biopsied tissue. No adverse reactions or postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSION:The treatment of large chondral defects with MSCs is an effective procedure and can be performed routinely in clinical practice. Moreover, it can be achieved with 1-step surgery, avoiding a previous surgical procedure to harvest cartilage and subsequent chondrocyte cultivation.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the outcome of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections into the knee in patients with early stages of osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine whether cyclical dosing would affect the end result. This is a prospective, randomized study in which 93 patients (119 knees) were followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Fifty knees were randomly selected prior to the first injection, to receive a second cycle at the completion of 1 year. A cycle consisted of three injections, each given at a monthly interval. The outcome was assessed using Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Tegner and Marx scoring systems, recorded prior to the first injection and then at 12, 18 and 24 months. There was a significant improvement in all scores over time compared to the pre-treatment value (p < 0.001). At 12 months, both groups showed similar and significant improvement. At 18 months, except for KOOS (Symptoms) and Tegner score, all other parameters showed a significant difference between the two groups in favour of the patients who had received the second cycle (p < 0.001). At 2 years, the scores declined in both groups but remained above the pre-treatment value with no significant difference between the groups despite the patients with two cycles showing higher mean values for all the scores. Intra-articular PRP injections into the knee for symptomatic early stages of OA are a valid treatment option. There is a significant reduction in pain and improvement in function after 12 months, which can be further improved at 18 months by annual repetition of the treatment. Although the beneficial effects are ill sustained at 2 years, the results are encouraging when compared to the pre-treatment function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00167-014-2987-4 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stem cells have huge applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Their use is currently not restricted to the life-threatening diseases but also extended to disorders involving the structural tissues, which may not jeopardize the patients' life, but certainly influence their quality of life. In fact, a particularly popular line of research is represented by the regeneration of bone and cartilage tissues to treat various orthopaedic disorders. Most of these pioneering research lines that aim to create new treatments for diseases that currently have limited therapies are still in the bench of the researchers. However, in recent years, several clinical trials have been started with satisfactory and encouraging results. This article aims to review the concept of stem cells and their characterization in terms of site of residence, differentiation potential and therapeutic prospective. In fact, while only the bone marrow was initially considered as a "reservoir" of this cell population, later, adipose tissue and muscle tissue have provided a considerable amount of cells available for multiple differentiation. In reality, recently, the so-called "stem cell niche" was identified as the perivascular space, recognizing these cells as almost ubiquitous. In the field of bone and joint diseases, their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lines makes their application ideally immediate through three main modalities: (1) cells selected by withdrawal from bone marrow, subsequent culture in the laboratory, and ultimately transplant at the site of injury; (2) bone marrow aspirate, concentrated and directly implanted into the injury site; (3) systemic mobilization of stem cells and other bone marrow precursors by the use of growth factors. The use of this cell population in joint and bone disease will be addressed and discussed, analysing both the clinical outcomes but also the basic research background, which has justified their use for the treatment of bone, cartilage and meniscus tissues.International Orthopaedics 07/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2445-4 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Full thickness cartilage defect might occur at different ages, but a focal defect is a major concern in the knee of young athletes. It causes impairment and does not heal by itself. Several techniques were described to treat symptomatic full thickness cartilage defect. Recently, several advances were described on the known techniques of microfracture, osteochondral allograft, cell therapy, and others. This article brings an update of current literature on these well-described techniques for full thickness cartilage defect.Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 07/2014; 7(3). DOI:10.1007/s12178-014-9226-y