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Equivalent titanium dioxide nanoparticle deposition by intratracheal instillation and whole body inhalation: The effect of dose rate on acute respiratory tract inflammation

Particle and Fibre Toxicology (Impact Factor: 6.99). 01/2014; 11(1):5. DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-11-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The increased production of nanomaterials has caused a corresponding increase in concern about human exposures in consumer and occupational settings. Studies in rodents have evaluated dose-response relationships following respiratory tract (RT) delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) in order to identify potential hazards. However, these studies often use bolus methods that deliver NPs at high dose rates that do not reflect real world exposures and do not measure the actual deposited dose of NPs. We hypothesize that the delivered dose rate is a key determinant of the inflammatory response in the RT when the deposited dose is constant.
F-344 rats were exposed to the same deposited doses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs by single or repeated high dose rate intratracheal instillation or low dose rate whole body aerosol inhalation. Controls were exposed to saline or filtered air. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophils, biochemical parameters and inflammatory mediator release were quantified 4, 8, and 24 hr and 7 days after exposure.
Although the initial lung burdens of TiO2 were the same between the two methods, instillation resulted in greater short term retention than inhalation. There was a statistically significant increase in BALF neutrophils at 4, 8 and 24 hr after the single high dose TiO2 instillation compared to saline controls and to TiO2 inhalation, whereas TiO2 inhalation resulted in a modest, yet significant, increase in BALF neutrophils 24 hr after exposure. The acute inflammatory response following instillation was driven primarily by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, mainly within the lung. Increases in heme oxygenase-1 in the lung were also higher following instillation than inhalation. TiO2 inhalation resulted in few time dependent changes in the inflammatory mediator release. The single low dose and repeated exposure scenarios had similar BALF cellular and mediator response trends, although the responses for single exposures were more robust.
High dose rate NP delivery elicits significantly greater inflammation compared to low dose rate delivery. Although high dose rate methods can be used for quantitative ranking of NP hazards, these data caution against their use for quantitative risk assessment.

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    • "In concordance, Li et al. (2010) indicated that after intratracheally installation of TiO 2 NPs once per-week for 4 consecutive weeks, NPs might translocated to the blood circulation and then to extrapulmonary tissues, and they were able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and induced to brain damage. In the latest study by Baisch et al. (2014), rats were exposed to TiO 2 NPs by intratracheal installation or whole body aerosol inhalation. The authors did not detect the TiO 2 NPs in the blood at 24 h or 7 days post exposure. "
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    • "Interestingly, Guadagnin et al. (2013), measuring the inflammatory markers GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1b (determined by mRNA activity), reported the opposite, with bronchial epithelial cells generally being more sensitive than A549 cells following treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of P25 Evonik nano-TiO 2 ($70/30 anatase:rutile mix). Recently, Baisch et al. (2014) reported that an acute inflammatory response in F-344 rats, following intratracheal instillation with 25 nm predominantly anatase nano-TiO 2 , was driven primarily by MCP-1 in the lung. Increased MCP-1 production is observed in chronic pulmonary diseases such allergic asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (Alam et al., 1996; Belperio, 2001; Inoshima, 2003); in this study, the 20% downward trend in its release 24 h post-treatment, suggests that the TT1 cellular response to nano- TiO 2 might be limited to an acute inflammatory response which could favour alveolar repair. "
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