An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach

Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 01/2014; 109(9):1399-1406. DOI: 10.1111/add.12457
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition.
We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5.
We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted.
Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder.

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Available from: Florian Rehbein, Jun 02, 2014
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    • "All rights reserved. (e.g., impaired academic performance, poorer health, problems with interpersonal relationships) (Petry et al., 2014), reflecting maladaptive decision-making in real life. Moreover, researchers have found that individuals with IGD demonstrate decision-making deficits under risk (when explicit information about probabilities and future outcomes are available) using different paradigms (Dong et al., 2013; Lin et al., 2015; Pawlikowski and Brand, 2011; Yao et al., 2014, 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates that both inhibition and decision-making deficits play essential roles in the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Clarifying whether impaired decision-making among individuals with IGD is related to poor inhibition will advance our understanding of IGD and contribute to intervention development. However, the relationship between these two functions remains unclear. In this study, we sought to systemically examine inhibitory processes, decision-making and the relationship between the two among individuals with IGD. Thirty-four individuals with IGD and 32 matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects demonstrated inhibition deficits during performance of the gaming-related Go/No-Go task and impaired decision-making under risk. In addition, errors on No-Go trials during the gaming-related Go/No-Go task were positively associated with decision-making impairments under risk but not under ambiguity among IGD subjects. These results suggest individuals with IGD are impaired in some aspects of inhibition and decision-making functions, and that decision-making deficits under risk are linked to poor inhibition specifically related to gaming cues, which has implications for the development of novel intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.004
    • "), thus calling for additional research (Petry et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: "Internet gaming disorder" was recently included in Section 3 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Non-gaming Internet activities were not considered because of a lack of evidence. This study examined whether gamers differ from non-gamers with respect to their psychological well-being among students who show pathological Internet use (PIU). This cross-sectional study was conducted within the project "Working in Europe to Stop Truancy Among Youth (WE-STAY)". A total of 8807 European representative students from randomly selected schools were included. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire was applied to assess PIU, and students with this condition were divided into gamers (PIU-G) and non-gamers (PIU-NG). Overall, 3.62% and 3.11% of the students were classified as having PIU-G and PIU-NG, respectively. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students with PIU-G and those with PIU-NG showed similarly increased risks for emotional symptoms, conduct disorder, hyperactivity/inattention, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation and behaviors. Students with PIU-G were more likely to be male and have a higher risk for peer problems than those with PIU-NG. Students with PIU-NG had a higher risk of depression than those with PIU-G. The significant psychological impairment of PIU-NG suggests that it should be considered in future diagnostic criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    04/2015; 228(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.04.029
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    • "Research into the psychosocial effects of video games has increased with many studies being published (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014a, 2014b; Kowert, Domahidi, Festl, & Quandt, 2014; Kuss, Griffiths, & Binder, 2013; Kuss, van Rooij, Shorter, Griffiths, & van de Mheen, 2013; Lopez-Fernandez, Honrubia-Serrano, Baguley, & Griffiths, 2014; Lopez-Fernandez, Honrubia-Serrano, Gibson, & Griffiths, 2014; Odrowska & Massar, 2014; Snodgrass et al., 2014). More recently, several scholars (e.g., Griffiths, King, & Demetrovics, 2014; King, Haagsma, Delfabbro, Gradisar, & Griffiths, 2013; Petry & O'Brien, 2013; Petry et al., 2014) have noted the need for developing a new psychometric tool for IGD capable of integrating the new aspects of the concept. Research on gaming behaviour has increased greatly over the last few years (Griffiths, Kuss, & Daniel, 2012; Kuss & Griffiths, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the large growth on gaming behaviour research, little has been done to overcome the problem stemming from the heterogeneity of gaming addiction nomenclature and the use of non-standardised measurement tools. Following the recent inclusion of internet gaming disorder [IGD] as a condition worthy of future studies in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-5], researchers have now an opportunity to reach consensus and unification in the field. The aim of this study was to develop a new nine-item short-form scale to assess internet gaming disorder (IGDS-SF9) and to further explore its psychometric properties. A sample of 1,060 gamers (85.1% males, mean age 27 years) recruited via online gaming forums participated. Exploratory factor analysis [EFA], confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], analyses of the criterion-related and concurrent validity, reliability, standard error of measurement [SEM], population cross-validity, and floor and ceiling effects were performed to assess the instrument’s psychometric properties. The results from the EFA revealed a single-factor structure for IGD that was also confirmed by the CFA. The nine items of the IGDS-SF9 are valid, reliable, and proved to be highly suitable for measuring IGD. It is envisaged that the IGDS-SF9 will help facilitate unified research in the field.
    Computers in Human Behavior 12/2014; 45:137-143. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.006 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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