Article

The emergence of Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani in southern Turkey.

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Impact Factor: 1.82). 01/2014; DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trt119
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In southern Turkey, Leishmania tropica and L. infantum are both the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), respectively. However, L. major and L. donovani were known to exist after the influx of Syrian refugees.
Between the years of July 2003 and July 2013, a total of 167 smears and 113 bone marrow samples were taken from CL and VL-suspected cases, respectively. Samples were analysed through real-time PCR and ITS1 DNA sequencing.
One hundred and seven 64% (107/167) smears and 56% (63/113) bone marrow samples were positive for leishmaniasis according to the real-time PCR. Three different Leishmania species were found in the 107 CL cases by real-time PCR: 42% (45/107) L. tropica, 36.5% (39/107) L. infantum and 21.5% (23/107) L. major. In addition, three different Leishmania species were identified in the 63 VL cases: 60.3% (38/63) L. infantum, 30.2% (19/63) L. donovani and 9.5% (6/63) L. tropica using real-time PCR. The results of real-time PCR were confirmed with Leishmania ITS1 DNA sequencing.
This study revealed that in southern Turkey, L. major and L. donovani were the aetiological agents of CL and VL, respectively. It was assumed that emergence of L. major and L. donovani was due to influx of Syrian refugees, as well as the effects of global warming.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
67 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum outbreaks in villages in the Cukurova region, South Anatolia, Turkey. 282 respondents from eight villages were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics, personal protection and knowledge of leishmania were analyzed. Young people, aged from 5-19 years, were found to be the most endangered group of villagers. The concurrent presence of both lesions and scars in nine persons may indicate repeated infections. Sleeping without bed nets, ownership of a dog and cattle ownership (living close to a barn and storage of dried dung according univariate analyses) were associated with a significantly increased risk of leishmania infection. Non-impregnated bed nets provided only partial protection, but their use decreased the risk approximately 1.6 times. Further research on the role of dogs in the transmission cycle and the effect of suitable interventions are needed to design the best strategy for disease control. Results suggest that personal protection should be increased, particularly among outdoor sleepers, with insecticide-treated bed nets suggested as the best choice.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 03/2012; 106(3):186-90. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in northwestern Iran. Real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and the direct agglutination test (DAT) were used to diagnose Leishmania infantum infection in blood samples from100 domestic dogsand100 humans. Based on clinical evaluation, 82 humans and 72 dogs from the endemic area were categorized as having asymptomatic infection, DAT positive with no clinical signs of VL, or symptomatic infection, DAT positive with at least one sign of VL. Eighteen human samples containing no Leishmania antibodies (DAT(-)) and 28 dog DAT(-) sera from non-endemic areas with no history of VL constituted negative controls. All 46 DAT(-) samples were also negative by Dipstick rK39. Bone marrow material was used for parasitological examinations in symptomatic VL, and peripheral blood samples were used for detection of Leishmania infantum infection using conventional PCR and real-time PCR in non-symptomatic subjects. Two DNA targets (ITS1 and kDNA) were used for conventional PCR. Leishmania infantum antibodies in sera were detected by DAT. Parasitemia was measured by real-time PCR targeting kDNA using Taqman Assay. All 72 (100%) symptomatic (38/38) and asymptomatic (34/34) dog DAT(+) samples, 45 of 48 (93.8%) symptomatic human DAT(+) samples, and 32 of 34 (94.1%) human asymptomatic cases were identified by real-time PCR. The mean (59.19 VS 12.38 parasite equivalents/mL of blood) and median (16.15 VS 1parasite equivalents/mL of blood) ranges of parasitemia were higher in dogs than in humans (P<0.05). The highest agreement was obtained between real-time PCR and DAT (99% in dogs and 95% in humans). Sensitivity of 100% and 93.9%, specificity of 96.4% and 100%, positive predictive values of 98.6% and 100%, and negative predictive values of 100% and 78.3% were found by real-time PCR for dog and human samples, respectively.
    Experimental Parasitology 11/2012; · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This is a case report of kala-azar with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Upon admission, the patient had fever, hepatosplenomegaly and an ulcer on her cheek. The patient responded to Pentostam. Isoenzyme studies of parasite isolates from the bone marrow and from the cutaneous lesion revealed that these were L. donovani and L. major, respectively. This is the first report in Iraq of a proven concomitant infection with two species of leishmania parasites.
    Sozial- und Präaventivmedizin SPM 02/1995; 40(4):234-8. · 0.82 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
18 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014