Single-cell technologies for monitoring immune systems
ABSTRACT The complex heterogeneity of cells, and their interconnectedness with each other, are major challenges to identifying clinically relevant measurements that reflect the state and capability of the immune system. Highly multiplexed, single-cell technologies may be critical for identifying correlates of disease or immunological interventions as well as for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of immunity. Here we review limitations of bulk measurements and explore advances in single-cell technologies that overcome these problems by expanding the depth and breadth of functional and phenotypic analysis in space and time. The geometric increases in complexity of data make formidable hurdles for exploring, analyzing and presenting results. We summarize recent approaches to making such computations tractable and discuss challenges for integrating heterogeneous data obtained using these single-cell technologies.
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ABSTRACT: PROSTVAC®, an active immunotherapy currently studied for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), consists of a heterologous prime-boost regimen with two different poxvirus-based vectors to provoke productive immune responses against prostate specific antigen (PSA) as the target tumor antigen. A Phase 2 study of PROSTVAC immunotherapy showed significantly improved median overall survival by 8.5 months and is currently being validated in a global Phase 3 study (PROSPECT; NCT01322490). Here, preclinical models were explored to investigate the mechanism of action and immune signatures of anti-tumor efficacy with PROSTVAC immunotherapy with the goal to identify potential immune correlates of clinical benefit. PROSTVAC-induced immune responses and anti-tumor efficacy were studied in male BALB/c mice. Functionality of the induced T cell response was characterized by interferon-gamma (IFNγ) ELISPOT, cytotoxic degranulation, multi-cytokine intracellular staining, and in vivo T cell depletion. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were evaluated phenotypically by flow cytometry. The heterologous prime-boost regimen of the two PROSTVAC vectors significantly enhanced the magnitude and quality of activated PSA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses compared to homologous, single vector regimens. PROSTVAC-activated CD4 and CD8 T cells were highly functional as evidenced by expression of activation markers, production of multiple cytokines, and amplified cytotoxic T cell activity. Importantly, PROSTVAC immunotherapy resulted in significant anti-tumor efficacy in a transplantable prostate cancer mouse model. Antigen-spreading occurred in PROSTVAC-treated animals that rejected PSA-expressing tumors, as shown by subsequent rejection of PSA-negative tumors. In vivo CD4 and CD8 depletion revealed that both T cell subsets contributed to anti-tumor efficacy. Characterization of TILs demonstrated that PROSTVAC immunotherapy greatly increased the intra-tumoral ratio of activated effector to regulatory T cells. PROSTVAC immunotherapy activates broad, highly functional T cell immunity to PSA and to endogenous tumor antigens via immune-mediated antigen spreading. These preclinical results further elucidate the mode of action of PROSTVAC immunotherapy and its potential causal relationship to extended overall survival as observed in the PROSTVAC Phase 2 study. The clinical validation is ongoing in the PROSPECT Phase 3 clinical study.10/2014; 2(1):34. DOI:10.1186/s40425-014-0034-0
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells serve as one of the first lines of defense against viral infections and transformed cells. NK cell cytotoxicity is not dependent on antigen presentation by target cells, but is dependent on integration of activating and inhibitory signals triggered by receptor-ligand interactions formed at a tight intercellular contact between the NK and target cell, i.e., the immune synapse. We have studied the single-cell migration behavior and target-cell contact dynamics of resting and interleukin (IL)-2-activated human peripheral blood NK cells. Small populations of NK cells and target cells were confined in microwells and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for >8 h. Only the IL-2-activated population of NK cells showed efficient cytotoxicity against the human embryonic kidney 293T target cells. We found that although the average migration speeds were comparable, activated NK cells showed significantly more dynamic migration behavior, with more frequent transitions between periods of low and high motility. Resting NK cells formed fewer and weaker contacts with target cells, which manifested as shorter conjugation times and in many cases a complete lack of post-conjugation attachment to target cells. Activated NK cells were approximately twice as big as the resting cells, displayed a more migratory phenotype, and were more likely to employ "motile scanning" of the target-cell surface during conjugation. Taken together, our experiments quantify, at the single-cell level, how activation by IL-2 leads to altered NK cell cytotoxicity, migration behavior, and contact dynamics.Frontiers in Immunology 03/2014; 5:80. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00080
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ABSTRACT: Microglia are the principal resident innate immune cells of the CNS. Their contributions to the normal development of the CNS, the maintenance and plasticity of neuronal networks and the safeguarding of proper functionality are becoming more and more evident. Microglia also survey the tissue homeostasis to respond rapidly to exogenous and endogenous threats, primarily with a protective outcome. However, excessive acute activation, chronic activity or an improper adaptation of their functional performance can foster neuropathologies. A key to the versatile response behavior of these cells is their ability to commit to reactive phenotypes, which reveal enormous complexity. Yet the respective profiles of induced genes and installed functions may build up on heterogeneous contributions of cellular subsets. Here, we discuss findings and concepts that consider the variety of microglial activities and response options as being based-at least in part-on a diversity of the engaged cells. Whether it is the production of proinflammatory cytokines, clearance of tissue debris, antigen presentation or the ability to sense neurotransmitters, microglial cells present with an unanticipated heterogeneity of their constitutive and inducible features. While the organizational principles of this heterogeneity are still largely unknown, functional implications are already perceptible.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 04/2014; 8:101. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00101 · 4.18 Impact Factor