Article

Emission estimates of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals from Mobile Sources in Delhi (India)

Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering 04/2013; 55(2):p. 127-142.

ABSTRACT An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used to estimate these emissions. Results show that the annual exhaust emission of PM of size up to 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of improvement in vehicle-technology and fuel use. PM emission from exhaust and non-exhaust sources in general has increased. Heavy commercial vehicles need attention to control particulate emission as it emerged as a predominant source of PM emissions.
Among non-exhaust emissions of total suspended particulate matter (TSP), road-surface wear (~49%) has the prime contribution. As a result of introduction of unleaded gasoline Pb has significantly reduced (~8 fold) whereas share of Cu and Zn are still considerable.
Among non-exhaust sources, Pb release was the most significant one from tyre-wear whereas from break-wear, Cu release was found to be the most significant followed by Pb and Cr + Zn.
Because of public health concerns further policies need to be developed to reduce emissions of PM and HMs from the road transport of megacity Delhi.

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