Mechanism and Function of Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Siglec-15 for Therapeutic Inhibition of Osteoclastic Bone Resorption

Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 01/2014; 289(10). DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.494542
Source: PubMed


The use of monoclonal antibodies to target functionally important cell-surface proteins on bone-resorbing osteoclasts represents a promising approach for treatment of cancer-associated bone loss and other skeletal pathologies. Previously, we identified Siglec-15, a little-studied sialic acid-binding receptor, as a candidate target that is highly upregulated during osteoclast differentiation induced by the cytokine RANKL. In this report, we confirm that Siglec-15 is localized to the plasma membrane where it can be targeted by monoclonal antibodies to inhibit differentiation of functional osteoclasts in vitro. Furthermore, we found that treatment of mice with these antibodies led to a marked increase in bone mineral density, consistent with inhibition of osteoclast activity. Interestingly, osteoblast numbers were maintained despite the anti-resorptive activity. At the molecular level, Siglec-15 interacts with the adapter protein DAP12 and can induce Akt activation when clustered on the osteoclast cell surface, which likely represents its normal signaling function. Importantly, we discovered that monoclonal antibodies induce rapid internalization, lysosomal targeting and degradation of Siglec-15 by inducing receptor dimerization. This study defines a key regulatory node that controls osteoclast differentiation and activity downstream of RANKL and supports further development of Siglec-15 antibodies as a novel class of bone loss therapeutics.

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    ABSTRACT: All mammalian cells display a diverse array of glycan structures that differ from those that are found on microbial pathogens. Siglecs are a family of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like receptors that participate in the discrimination between self and non-self, and that regulate the function of cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems through the recognition of their glycan ligands. In this Review, we describe the recent advances in our understanding of the roles of Siglecs in the regulation of immune cell function in infectious diseases, inflammation, neurodegeneration, autoimmune diseases and cancer.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 09/2014; 14(10). DOI:10.1038/nri3737 · 34.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether blockade of Siglec-15 is effective for preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in a mouse ovariectomy model.•Siglec-15-/- mice showed resistance to estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.•Osteoclast development was impaired in ovariectomized Siglec-15-/- mice.•The TNF-α mediated induction of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells was impaired in Siglec-15-/- cells.
    Bone 11/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.10.027 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoclastogenesis requires immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling. Multiple immunoreceptors associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif adaptor proteins, including DNAX-activating protein 12kDa (DAP12) and Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ), have been identified in osteoclast lineage cells, and some are involved in arthritis-induced bone destruction. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) is an immunoreceptor that regulates osteoclast development and bone resorption in association with DAP12. Whether Siglec-15 is involved in arthritis-induced bone lesions, however, remains unknown. Here we used a murine antigen-induced arthritis model to examine the role of Siglec-15 in the development of bone lesions induced by joint inflammation. Arthritis was unilaterally induced in the knee joints of 8-week-old female wild-type (WT) and Siglec-15(-/-) mice, and the contralateral knees were used as a control. The degree of joint inflammation, and cartilage and subchondral bone destruction in Siglec-15(-/-) mice was comparable to that in WT mice, indicating that Siglec-15 is not involved in the development of arthritis, and concomitant cartilage and subchondral bone destruction. On the other hand, the degree of periarticular bone loss in the proximal tibia of the arthritic knee was significantly lower in Siglec-15(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Although osteoclast formation in the metaphysis was enhanced in both WT and Siglec-15(-/-) mice after arthritis induction, mature multinucleated osteoclast formation was impaired in Siglec-15(-/-) mice, indicating impaired osteoclast bone resorptive function in the periarticular regions of the arthritic joint in Siglec-15(-/-) mice. Confirming this result, Siglec-15(-/-) primary unfractionated bone marrow cells harvested from arthritic femurs and tibiae failed to develop into mature multinuclear osteoclasts. Our findings suggest that Siglec-15 is a therapeutic target for periarticular bone loss, but not for joint destruction, in inflammatory arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 05/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.05.029 · 3.97 Impact Factor

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