Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence is markedly higher in blacks compared with whites, which may be related to a higher prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Our objective was to define the prevalence and risk factors of MGUS in a large cohort representative of the United States (U.S.) population. Stored serum samples from National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III or NHANES 1999-2004 were available for 12 482 persons age 50 years (2331 'black', 2475 Hispanics, 7051 'white', and 625 'others') on which agarose-gel electrophoresis, serum protein immunofixation, serum free light-chain assay, and M-protein typing were performed. MGUS was identified in 365 participants (2.4%). Adjusted prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in blacks (3.7%) compared with whites (2.3%) (P=0.001) or Hispanics (1.8%), as were characteristics that posed a greater risk of progression to MM. The adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 3.1% and 2.1% for the North/Midwest versus South/West regions of the U.S., respectively (P=0.052). MGUS is significantly more common in blacks, and more often has features associated with higher risk of progression to MM. A strong geographic disparity in prevalence of MGUS between the North/Midwest versus the South/West regions of the U.S. was found, which has etiologic implications.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 20 January 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.34.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant proliferative disorder that may progress to multiple myeloma, a malignant plasma cell neoplasia. We evaluated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as an experimental tool for differentiating serum samples of MGUS patients from healthy individuals. DSC thermograms can be used for monitoring changes in the serum proteome associated with MGUS. MGUS patients showed great variability in serum thermogram characteristics, which depended on the IgG, IgA or IgM isotypes and/or the kappa or lambda light chains. Thermogram feature parameters distinguished patients with MGUS from healthy people. Serum samples, named as non-MGUS, were also collected from patients with subjacent immunological pathologies who were discarded of having MGUS through serum immunofixation. They were used to verify the sensitivity of DSC for discriminating MGUS from related blood dyscrasias. Only some DSC thermogram feature parameters differentiated, to a lesser extent, between MGUS and non-MGUS individuals. We contemplate DSC as a tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of MGUS.
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