Surgical outcomes of craniocervial junction meningiomas: A series of 22 consecutive patients
ABSTRACT We present our experience in managing craniocervical junction meningiomas and discuss various surgical approaches and outcomes.
We retrospectively reviewed 22 consecutive cases of craniocervical junction meningiomas operated on between August 1995 and May 2012.
There were 15 female and 7 male patients (mean age: 54 years). Meningiomas were classified based on origin as spinocranial (7 cases) or craniospinal (15 cases). Additionally, the tumors were divided into anatomical location relative to the brainstem or spinal cord: there were 2 anterior tumors, 7 anterolateral, 12 lateral, and 1 posterolateral. Surgical approaches included the posterior midline suboccipital approach (9 cases), the far lateral approach (12 cases) and the lateral retrosigmoid approach (1 case). Gross-total resection was achieved in 45% of patients and subtotal in 55%. The most common post-operative complications were cranial nerve (CN) IX and X deficits. The mortality rate was 4.5%. There have been no recurrences to date with a mean follow-up was 46.5 months and the mean Karnofsky score at the last follow-up of 82.3. In this series, spinocranial tumors were detected at a smaller size (p=0.0724) and treated earlier (p=0.1398) than craniospinal tumors. They were associated with a higher rate of total resection (p=0.0007), fewer post-operative CN IX or X deficits (p=0.0053), and shorter hospitalizations (p=0.08).
Our experience suggests that posterior midline suboccipital or far-lateral approaches with minimal condylar drilling and vertebral artery mobilization were suitable for most cases in this series.
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ABSTRACT: A modification of the unilateral suboccipital approach is elaborated and illustrated. This modification is useful for aneurysms of the vertebral artery, the vertebrobasilar junction, and the proximal basilar trunk, and for arteriovenous malformations of the inferolateral cerebellum. It entails extreme lateral removal of the rim of the foramen magnum toward the condylar fossa and posterolateral removal of the arch of the atlas toward the exposed vertebral artery. This extra bone removal allows an approach to the front of the brain stem from inferolaterally, after gentle upward and medial retraction of the tonsil, with minimal or no retraction of the medulla.Journal of Neurosurgery 05/1986; 64(4):559-62. DOI:10.3171/jns.1986.64.4.0559 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Article: Benign tumors of the foramen magnum.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors reviewed 102 documented cases of benign extramedullary tumors of the foramen magnum treated at their institution between 1924 and 1982. There was 78 meningiomas, 23 neurofibromas, and one teratoma. Approximately 40% of the patients had a normal neurological examination upon first evaluation. The most frequent presenting complaints were suboccipital neck pain, dysesthesias, gait disturbances, weakness, and hand clumsiness. The average time from initial symptoms to diagnosis was 2 1/4 years. The most common findings included hyperreflexia, arm or hand weakness, Babinski sign, spastic gait, sensory loss, and 11th cranial nerve involvement. Based on these cases, an attempt is made to distinguish foramen magnum tumors from other disease entities by a grouping of signs and symptoms. There is no clinical finding that is pathognomonic. Metrizamide computerized tomography scanning and Pantopaque myelography have been the radiographic tests most commonly used to evaluate the foramen magnum. Recent experience suggests that nuclear magnetic resonance scanning will be a very useful noninvasive means of evaluating the foramen magnum region.Journal of Neurosurgery 08/1984; 61(1):136-42. DOI:10.3171/jns.1984.61.1.0136 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The microsurgical anatomy of the jugular foramen was studied in 10 fixed cadavers, each cadaver consisting of the whole head and neck. Five of the cadavers were injected with latex. The jugular foraminal region was exposed using the infratemporal fossa type A approach of Fisch and Pillsbury in five cadavers (10 sides) and the combined cervical dissection-mastoidectomy-suboccipital craniectomy approach in five cadavers (10 sides). The right foramen was larger than the left in seven cases (70%), equal in two cases (20%), and smaller in one case (10%). The dura covering the intracranial portal of the foramen had two perforations, a smaller anteromedial perforation through which passed the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), and a larger posterolateral perforation, through which passed the 10th and 11th cranial nerves (CNs X and XI) and the distal sigmoid sinus. The perforations were separated by a fibrous septum in 16 specimens (80%). After exiting the posterior fossa, CNs IX, X, and XI all lay anteromedial to the superior jugular bulb (SJB) within the jugular foramen. The inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) entered the foramen between CNs IX and X in most cases; however, in 10% of our cases it entered the foramen between CNs X and XI, and in 10% it entered the foramen caudal to CN XI. The IPS terminated in the SJB in 90% of our cases; in 40%, the IPS termination consisted of multiple channels draining into both the SJB and internal jugular vein. This study shows that the arrangement of the neurovascular structures within the jugular foramen does not conform to the hitherto widely accepted notion of discrete compartmentalization into an anteromedial pars nervosa containing CN IX and the IPS and a posterolateral pars venosa containing the SJB, CNs X and XI, and the posterior meningeal artery.Journal of Neurosurgery 12/1995; 83(5):903-9. DOI:10.3171/jns.1995.83.5.0903 · 3.23 Impact Factor