Surgical outcomes of craniocervial junction meningiomas: A series of 22 consecutive patients

Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 1.13). 02/2014; 117C:71-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2013.11.023
Source: PubMed


We present our experience in managing craniocervical junction meningiomas and discuss various surgical approaches and outcomes.
We retrospectively reviewed 22 consecutive cases of craniocervical junction meningiomas operated on between August 1995 and May 2012.
There were 15 female and 7 male patients (mean age: 54 years). Meningiomas were classified based on origin as spinocranial (7 cases) or craniospinal (15 cases). Additionally, the tumors were divided into anatomical location relative to the brainstem or spinal cord: there were 2 anterior tumors, 7 anterolateral, 12 lateral, and 1 posterolateral. Surgical approaches included the posterior midline suboccipital approach (9 cases), the far lateral approach (12 cases) and the lateral retrosigmoid approach (1 case). Gross-total resection was achieved in 45% of patients and subtotal in 55%. The most common post-operative complications were cranial nerve (CN) IX and X deficits. The mortality rate was 4.5%. There have been no recurrences to date with a mean follow-up was 46.5 months and the mean Karnofsky score at the last follow-up of 82.3. In this series, spinocranial tumors were detected at a smaller size (p=0.0724) and treated earlier (p=0.1398) than craniospinal tumors. They were associated with a higher rate of total resection (p=0.0007), fewer post-operative CN IX or X deficits (p=0.0053), and shorter hospitalizations (p=0.08).
Our experience suggests that posterior midline suboccipital or far-lateral approaches with minimal condylar drilling and vertebral artery mobilization were suitable for most cases in this series.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies found that the facet joint of the C1 vertebra were removed (C1 facetectomy) before extirpation from the extramedullary tumor in craniocervical junction, leading to postoperative upper cervical instability or deformity. Occipito-cervical fusion (OCF) is a demanding and morbid surgical procedure, which can be used in such patients. This study is to analyze the clinical manifestation and surgical outcome of patients with craniocervical extramedullary tumor undergoing an extirpation of spinal tumors and OCF by one-stage posterior approach. Methods: The surgical and clinical databases were searched for operative procedures that had been performed for patients with spinal extramedullary tumors in craniocervical junction at a single institution from January 2008 to July 2011. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1) initial surgery for craniocervical extramedullary tumor, (2) gross total resection and occipito-cervical fusion had been performed, (3) minimum 2-year follow-up, and (4) no previous cervical spine surgery. Medical records included demographic characteristics, clinical assessment, and radiographic studies. Clinical outcomes before and after the surgery were assessed using Frankel grade and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Cervical sagittal alignment was evaluated by C0-2 angle and C2-7 angle based on X-ray. Results: Nine patients were included in the study. Five patients had schwannoma, three patients had meningioma, and only one patient had neurofibroma. All cases were followed up for 24-42 months (average, 34.2 months). At the last follow-up, three patients improved from Frankel grade C to grade D, two patients from Frankel grade C to grade E, and one patient from Frankel grade D to grade E, while two patients remained stationary at the Frankel grade D. The JOA score of the eight patients were 9.0 (range, 6-17) before surgery and were 14.6 (range, 12-17) at the most recent follow-up (p < 0.05). The mean C0-2 angle and the mean C2-7 angle before surgery were 26.2 ± 5.3° and 17.4 ± 13.1°, respectively. At the end of follow-up, the mean C0-2 angle was 25.6 ± 4.8°, and the mean C2-7 angle decreased to 12.7 ± 10.9°. However, this trend did not reach statistical significance (p < 0.05). Two patients suffered from cerebrospinal fluid leaks postoperatively. All patients had a satisfactory fusion and did not exhibit a tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusions: OCF following gross total resection appears to be a useful surgical procedure for the craniocervical extramedullary tumors requiring C1 facetectomy and does not cause postoperative kyphosis of the upper cervical spine.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 09/2015; 13(1):279. DOI:10.1186/s12957-015-0689-0 · 1.41 Impact Factor

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