Dissociation of hepatic insulin resistance from susceptibility of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-carbohydrate diet in mice
ABSTRACT Liver steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is affected by genetics, diet, and associated with insulin resistance (IR) in hepatic and peripheral tissues. Here, we aimed to characterize the severity of diet-induced steatosis, obesity, and IR in two phylogenetically distant mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. To this end, mice (male, 8 weeks) were fed a high fat and high carbohydrate (HFHC) or control diet for 16 weeks followed by applying a combination of classic physiological, biochemical and pathological studies to determine obesity and hepatic steatosis. Peripheral IR was characterized by measuring blood glucose level, serum insulin level, HOMA-IR, glucose intolerance, insulin intolerance, and AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissues, whereas the level of hepatic IR was determined by measuring insulin-triggered hepatic AKT phosphorylation. We discovered that both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice developed obesity to a similar degree without feature of liver inflammation after feeding HFHC-diet for 16 weeks. C57BL/6J mice in the HFHC-diet group exhibited severe pan-lobular steatosis, a marked increase in hepatic triglyceride levels, and profound peripheral IR. In contrast, DBA/2J mice in the HFHC-diet group developed only a mild degree of pericentrilobular hepatic steatosis that was associated with moderate changes in peripheral IR. Interestingly, both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J developed severe hepatic IR after HFHC-diet treatment. Collectively, these data suggest the severity of diet-induced hepatic steatosis is correlated to the level of peripheral IR, not with the severity of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. Peripheral rather than hepatic IR is a dominant factor of pathophysiology in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
SourceAvailable from: Mariola Olkowicz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) extract on the activity of porcine pancreatic α-amylase and lipase. An in vitro study demonstrated that three kinds of chokeberry extracts: methanolic, water and acetic caused inhibition of α-amylase and lipase. The methanolic and acetic extracts exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against α-amylase with the IC50 values of 10.31 ± 0.04 mg/ml and pancreatic lipase 83.45 ± 0.50 mg/ml, respectively. In order to identify the compounds which may be the potential inhibitors of α-amylase and lipase, chokeberry extract was analysed by preparative reverse phase chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These studies have shown that both anthocyanins and phenolic acids are compounds which inhibit the ability of the reaction catalysed by α-amylase and lipase. The most effective inhibitor of pancreatic α-amylase was chlorogenic acid (IC50 = 0.57 ± 0.16 mg/ml). In the group of anthocyanins the most potent inhibitor of α-amylase was cyanidin-3-glucoside (IC50 = 1.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml), which also showed an ability to inhibit the reaction catalysed by pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 1.17 ± 0.05 mg/ml). These findings seem to indicate the use of chokeberry as a functional food component, contributing to its anti-obesity activities.PROCESS BIOCHEMISTRY 09/2014; 49(9). DOI:10.1016/j.procbio.2014.06.002 · 2.52 Impact Factor