Characterization and Quantification of Diacylglycerol Species in Biological Extracts after One-Step Derivatization: A Shotgun Lipidomics Approach
ABSTRACT Diacylglycerols (DAGs) are important intermediates of lipid metabolism and cellular signaling. It is well known that the mass levels of DAG are altered under disease states. Therefore, quantitative analysis of DAGs in biological samples can provide critical information to uncover underlying mechanisms of various cellular functional disorders. Although great efforts on the analysis of individual DAG species have recently been made by utilizing mass spectrometry with or without derivatization, cost effective and high throughput methodology for identification and quantification of all DAG species including regioisomers, particularly in an approach of shotgun lipidomics, are still missing. Herein, we described a novel method for directly identifying and quantifying DAG species including regioisomers present in lipid extracts of biological samples after facile one-step derivatization with dimethylglycine based on the principles of multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics. The established method provided substantial sensitivity (low limit of quantification at amol/μl), high specificity, and broad linear dynamics range (2,500 folds) without matrix effects. By exploiting this novel method, we revealed a 16-fold increase of total DAG mass in the livers of ob/ob mice compared to their wild type controls at 4 months of age (an insulin-resistant state) vs. a 5-fold difference between 3-month old mice (with normal insulin). These results demonstrated the importance and power of the method for studying biochemical mechanisms underpinning disease states.
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ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease. The current standard treatment with glucocorticoids (GCs) leads to many adverse effects, and its effectiveness is questionable. Thus, it is critical and urgent to find new drug(s) for treatment of IPF. Baicalin (BAI) is an attractive candidate for this purpose. Herein, utilizing shotgun lipidomics, we revealed that IPF could lead to a lipid disorder of the liver in an animal model induced by bleomycin and confirmed through histopathological studies of the lung. Lipidomics further demonstrated that this disorder could virtually be corrected after treatment with BAI, but not with dexamethasone (DEX) (a commonly used GC for treatment of IPF). In contrast, the treatment with DEX did not improve IPF but led to tremendous alterations in hepatic lipidomes and accumulation of fat in the liver, which was very different from the lipid disorder induced by IPF. The underpinning mechanisms of the IPF-resultant lipid disorder and DEX-induced lipotoxicity as revealed by shotgun lipidomics were extensively discussed. Taken together, the current study showed that IPF could lead to hepatic lipid disorder, which can be treated with BAI, and demonstrated that lipidomics could be a powerful tool for drug screening.The AAPS Journal 03/2015; 17(3). DOI:10.1208/s12248-014-9714-4 · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometric analysis of cellular lipids is an enabling technology for lipidomics, which is a rapidly-developing research field. In this review, we briefly discuss the principles, advantages, and possible limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry-based methodologies for the analysis of lipid species. The applications of these methodologies to lipidomic research are also summarized.Molecular BioSystems 01/2015; 11(3). DOI:10.1039/C4MB00586D · 3.18 Impact Factor
Article: Trimethylation Enhancement Using Diazomethane (TrEnDi) II: Rapid In-Solution Concomitant Quaternization of Glycerophospholipid Amino Groups and Methylation of Phosphate Groups via Reaction with Diazomethane Significantly Enhances Sensitivity in Mass Spectrometry Analyses via a Fixed, Permanent Positive Charge[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A novel mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics strategy that exposes glycerophospholipids to an ethereal solution of diazomethane and acid, derivatizing them to contain a net fixed, permanent positive charge is described. The sensitivity of modified lipids to MS detection is enhanced via improved ionization characteristics as well as consolidation of ion dissociation to form one or two strong, characteristic polar head group fragments. Our strategy has been optimized to enable a priori prediction of ion fragmentation patterns for four subclasses of modified glycerophospholipid species. Our method enables analyte ionization regardless of proton affinity, thereby decreasing ion suppression and permitting predictable precursor ion-based quantitation with improved sensitivity in comparison to MS-based methods that are currently used on unmodified lipid precursors.Analytical Chemistry 09/2014; 86(19). DOI:10.1021/ac501588y · 5.83 Impact Factor