Commentary on Gowin et al. (2014): Brain is behavior-methamphetamine dependence and recovery

Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 02/2014; 109(2):248-9. DOI: 10.1111/add.12442
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Drug dependent individuals often make drug-taking decisions when they do not feel well. Yet, few studies have examined the influence of an aversive state on decision-making related neural processing. Methods: We investigate brain activation to decision-making during an aversive interoceptive challenge in methamphetamine users using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Recently abstinent inpatients with methamphetamine use disorder (METH; n=20) and healthy comparison subjects (CTL; n=22) performed a two-choice prediction task at three fixed error rates (ER; 20%=reward, 50%=uncertainty, 80%=punishment) while anticipating and experiencing episodes of inspiratory breathing load during fMRI. Results: METH exhibited higher trait anxiety in conjunction with lower anterior insula (AI) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation than CTL across trials. METH also showed lower posterior insula (PI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation than CTL during breathing load independent of ER. For the crucial ER by interoception interaction, METH displayed lower ACC activation to punishment/loss than CTL during breathing load. Within METH, lower trait anxiety was linked to AI/IFG attenuation across trials. Conclusions: AI/IFG attenuations in METH are suggestive of an executive functioning deficit, particularly in users with low anxiety, reflecting reduced resources allocated to choice selection. In contrast, PI/ACC reductions in METH appear specific to impairments in registering and evaluating interoceptive experiences. Taken together, inadequate activation of brain areas that are important for regulating when one does not feel well may be the neural basis for poor decision-making by METH.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 06/2014; 142. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.003 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This first-in-human study examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of ch-mAb7F9, an anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody, in healthy volunteers. Single, escalating doses of ch-mAb7F9 over the range of 0.2 to 20 mg/kg were administered to 42 subjects who were followed for 147 days. Safety was measured by physical examinations, adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory testing. Serum ch-mAb7F9 concentration and immunogenicity analyses were performed. There were no serious adverse reactions or discontinuations from the study due to adverse events. No trends emerged in the frequency, relatedness, or severity of adverse events with increased dose or between active and placebo treated subjects. Ch-mAb7F9 displayed expected IgG pharmacokinetic parameters, including a half-life of 17-19 days in the three highest dose groups and volume of distribution of 5-6 L, suggesting the antibody is confined primarily to the vascular compartment. Four (12.5%) of the 32 subjects receiving ch-mAb7F9 were confirmed to have developed a human anti-chimeric antibody response by the end of the study; however, this response did not appear to be dose related. Overall, no apparent safety or tolerability concerns were identified; a maximum tolerated dose was not reached in this Phase 1 study. Ch-mAb7F9 therefore appears safe for human administration.
    mAbs 10/2014; 6(6). DOI:10.4161/19420862.2014.976431 · 4.56 Impact Factor

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