Levetiracetam Rectal Administration in Healthy Dogs
ABSTRACT Levetiracetam is used to manage status epilepticus (SE) and cluster seizures (CS) in humans. The drug might be absorbed after rectal administration and could offer a practical adjunct to rectal administration of diazepam in managing SE and CS.
Levetiracetam is rapidly absorbed after rectal administration in dogs and maintains target serum concentrations for at least 9 hours.
Six healthy privately owned dogs between 2 and 6 years of age and weighing 10-20 kg.
Levetiracetam (40 mg/kg) was administered rectally and blood samples were obtained immediately before (time zero) and at 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 540 minutes after drug administration. Dogs were observed for signs of adverse effects over a 24-hour period after drug administration.
CLEV at 10 minutes was 15.3 ± 5.5 μg/mL (mean, SD) with concentrations in the target range (5-40 μg/mL) for all dogs throughout the sampling period. Cmax (36.0 ± 10.7 μg/mL) and Tmax (103 ± 31 minutes) values were calculated and 2 disparate groups were appreciated. Dogs with feces in the rectum at the time of drug administration had lower mean Cmax values (26.7 ± 3.4 μg/mL) compared with those without (45.2 ± 4.4 μg/mL). Mild sedation was observed between 60 and 90 minutes without other adverse effects noted.
This study supports the use of rectally administered levetiracetam in future studies of clinical effectiveness in the management of epileptic dogs.
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ABSTRACT: The use of diazepam per rectum (RDZ) in the home to control generalized cluster seizures in 11 dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy was evaluated over a 16-month period. All dogs had a prior history of clusters of generalized seizures and were treated with multiple antiepileptic drugs. Owners were instructed to administer diazepam injectable solution (5 mg/mL) per rectum to their dogs at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg when an initial generalized seizure occurred and when a second or third generalized seizure occurred within 24 hours of the first seizure. Seizure activity was recorded by owners in a daily log before the onset of RDZ use and for the duration of RDZ use, which ranged from 57 to 464 days (median = 157 days). The median age at which the first seizure occurred and the median age at the time of enrollment in the study were 19 and 42 months, respectively. All 11 dogs were treated with phenobarbital, with 10 dogs receiving concomitant bromide therapy. No significant correlation between the duration of the first, second, or third antiepileptic drug therapy and the change in the number of cluster seizure events before or after use of RDZ was found. Comparisons of seizure activity were done for the same time interval before and after the onset of RDZ availability. A significant decrease in the total number of seizure events and the total number of cluster seizures events was found after RDZ availability. Similarly, a significant difference in the average number of seizures per cluster seizure event and the total number of isolated seizure events occurred before and after RDZ therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/1995; 9(2):68-74. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1995.tb03275.x · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Levetiracetam is a novel orally active antiepileptic drug with a unique preclinical profile. It has a high therapeutic index and potential antiepileptogenic effects. Results of clinical trials indicate activity in partial-onset and generalized seizures. The pharmacokinetic profile of levetiracetam closely approximates the ideal characteristics expected of an antiepileptic drug, with good bioavailability, rapid achievement of steady-state concentrations, linear and time-invariant kinetics, minimal protein binding, and minimal metabolism. The major metabolic pathway of levetiracetam is not dependent on the hepatic cytochrome P450 system, and levetiracetam does not inhibit or induce hepatic enzymes to produce clinically relevant interactions. Sixty-six percent of an administered levetiracetam dose is eliminated unchanged in urine; 24% is metabolized to an inactive metabolite that is detectable in blood and is also excreted in urine. Total body clearance of levetiracetam is decreased in patients with renal impairment, and doses should be modified according to creatinine clearance values. Levetiracetam is not appreciably protein-bound, nor does it affect the protein binding of other drugs. Thus, because of its minimal protein binding and lack of hepatic metabolism, the risk of drug interactions is very low. Levetiracetam has a wide margin of safety and patient-friendly pharmacokinetics that distinguish it from other currently available antiepileptic drugs. This profile may facilitate the clinical management of patients with epilepsy by providing a safer and less-complicated therapeutic strategy.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 03/2000; 85(2):77-85. · 7.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors for episodes of status epilepticus (SE) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and determine how SE affects long-term outcome and survival time. Retrospective study. 32 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Information on signalment, seizure onset, initiation of treatment, anticonvulsants administered, number of episodes of SE, overall seizure control, and long-term outcome was obtained from medical records and through telephone interviews. Differences between dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE were evaluated statistically. 19 (59%) dogs had 1 or more episodes of SE. Body weight was the only variable significantly different between dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE. Thirteen dogs (9 that did not have episodes of SE and 4 that did) were still alive at the time of the study and were > or = 10 years old. Six of the 19 (32%) dogs that had episodes of SE died of causes directly attributed to the seizure disorder. Mean life spans of dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE were 8.3 and 11.3 years, respectively. Survival time was significantly different between groups. Results suggest that a substantial percentage of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy will have episodes of SE. Dogs with greater body weights were more likely to have episodes of SE, and early appropriate seizure treatment did not appear to decrease the risk that dogs would have episodes. Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy had an expected life span, but survival time was shorter for dogs that had episodes of SE.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 10/2001; 219(5):618-23. DOI:10.2460/javma.2001.219.618 · 1.67 Impact Factor