Role of vaccination in preventing pneumococcal disease in adults.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 5.2). 01/2014; 20. DOI: 10.1111/1469-0691.12518
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pneumococcal infections, including pneumonia and invasive disease (IPD), are major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevention of first acquisition of S. pneumoniae with the use of vaccines represents an effective method to reduce the burden of the disease in both children and adults. Two vaccines are currently available in adults: a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that includes 23 purified capsular polysaccharide antigens and a pneumococcal protein-conjugate vaccine (PCV13) that includes capsular polysaccharide antigens covalently linked to a non-toxic protein. The PPV23 induces a humoral immune response and since it has been licensed, it has been the subject of debates and controversies. Numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown that PPV23 protects against IPD, although there are conflicting data regarding its efficacy for the prevention of pneumonia. Vaccination with PCV13 stimulates good antibody responses as well as mucosal antibody and suppresses colonization. A conjugate vaccine can be expected to have benefits over a polysaccharide vaccine, due to the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response in terms of affinity, maturation of antibodies with repeated exposure, induction of immunological memory and long lasting immunity. The PCV13 has demonstrated all these characteristics in children and fundamental differences in adults are not expected. The efficacy in adults is currently being investigated and results will be available soon. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Incidence of pneumococcal disease is disproportionally high in infants and elderly. Naso-pharyngeal colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered a prerequisite for disease but unlike in children, carriage in elderly is rarely detected. Here, we tested for S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and saliva samples collected from community-dwelling elderly with influenza-like-illness (ILI). Trans-nasal nasopharyngeal, trans-oral nasopharyn-geal and saliva samples (n = 270 per sample type) were collected during winter/spring 2011/2012 from 135 persons aged 60–89 at onset of ILI and 7–9 weeks later following recovery. After samples were tested for pneumococci by conventional culture, all plate growth was collected. DNA extracted from plate harvests was tested by quantitative-PCRs (qPCR) specific for S. pneumoniae and serotypes included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13). Pneumococci were cultured from 14 of 135 (10%) elderly with none of the sampled niches showing superiority in carriage detection. With 76/270 (28%) saliva, 31/ 270 (11%) trans-oral and 13/270 (5%) trans-nasal samples positive by qPCR, saliva was superior to nasopharyngeal swabs (p<0.001) in qPCR-based carriage detection. Overall, from all methods used in the study, 65 of 135 (48%) elderly carried pneumococci at least once and 26 (19%) at both study time points. The difference between carriage prevalence at ILI (n = 49 or 36%) versus recovery (n = 42 or 31%) was not significant (p = 0.38). At least 23 of 91 (25%) carriage events in 19 of 65 (29%) carriers were associated with PCV13-serotypes. We detected a large reservoir of pneumococci in saliva of elderly, with PCV13-serotype distribution closely resembling the contemporary carriage of serotypes reported in the Netherlands for PCV-vaccinated infants.
    PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119875 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Italian Committee of medical residents in Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health is a member of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health with the aim of developing a network among Italian resident in public health and promoting the educational path improvement through comparisons and debates between postgraduate medical schools. In this perspective, during last years account has been taken of some essential topics concerning education of public health medical residents, which represent future health-care and public health experts. Cross-sectional researches were conducted among Italian public health medical residents (PHMRs) through self-administered and web-based questionnaires. Each questionnaire was previously validated by pilot studies conducted during the 46th National Conference of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health. Seventy percent of Italian PHMRs considered the actual length of Public Health postgraduate medical school excessively long, with regard to predetermined educational goals. Confirming this statement, 90% of respondents were inclined to a reduction from 5 to 4 years of postgraduate medical school length, established by Law Decree 104/2013. Seventy seven percent of surveyed PHMRs stand up for a rearrangement on a national setting of the access contest to postgraduate medical schools. Moreover 1/3 of Italian schools performed less than 75%of learning and qualifying activities specified in Ministerial Decree of August 2005. In particular, data analysis showed considerable differences among Italian postgraduate schools. Finally, in 2015 only four Italian Universities (Napoli Federico II, Palermo, Pavia, Roma Tor Vergata) provide for the Second Level Master qualify for the functions of occupational doctor. This offer makes available 60 positions against a request of over 200 future Public Health medical doctors who have shown interest in the Master. In Italy, after the introduction of Ministerial Decree 285/2005, the educational course of PHMRs was significantly improved. The standardization of learning and qualifying activities allowed for the first time the attendance at medical directions or Local Health Units. Nevertheless, the excessive lenght of postgradute schools and the differences about training among Italian Universities are critical and actual issue. Moreover, the remarkable interest shown by PHMRs in the Master could suggest a poor job replacement prospect for young medical specialist in Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health.
    Epidemiologia e prevenzione 11/2014; 38(6 Suppl 2):115-9. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Epidemiologia e prevenzione 11/2014; 38(6 Suppl 2):147-51. · 1.46 Impact Factor