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Nowotwory jelita grubego jako poważny problem medyczny w Polsce i na świecie (Human colon cancers as a major medical problem in Poland and in the world)

Medycyna Środowiskowa / Environmental Medicine 01/2011; 14(4):75-80.

ABSTRACT Już od kilkudziesięciu lat dane epidemiologiczne wskazują na wzrost zachorowalności i umieralności na nowotwory okrężnicy, nie tylko w Polsce ale i na całym świecie. Każdego roku diagnozowanych jest prawie milion nowych zachorowań na raka tej części przewodu pokarmowego i jest on przyczyną około pół miliona zgonów.
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest zaprezentowanie epidemiologii oraz bieżącego stanu wiedzy o etiologii i patogenezie nowotworów jelita grubego. Ponadto, ten krótki artykuł opisuje również najistotniejsze czynniki ryzyka oraz sugeruje szereg prostych i skutecznych działań profilaktycznych.
Rak jelita grubego jest jednym z najczęściej diagnozowanych nowotworów w krajach Unii Europejskiej. Liczne badania dowiodły, iż na procesy kancerogenezy w jelicie grubym mają wpływ czynniki genetyczne i dziedziczne. Co więcej, również czynniki środowiskowe, takie jak dieta przyczyniają się do rozwoju nowotworów w jelicie grubym. Kluczem do zmniejszenia zachorowalności i śmiertelności jest przede wszystkim profilaktyka. Badania przesiewowe (skriningowe) przeprowadzane u osób bez widocznych objawów choroby, ale należących do tzw. grup czy populacji wysokiego ryzyka, umożliwiają wykrycie raka jelita grubego na wczesnym etapie jego rozwoju. Liczne dane literaturowe donoszą o tym, że zmiana stylu życia oraz codziennej diety odgrywają szczególną rolę w profilaktyce.

Many epidemiological data have shown an increasing incidence and mortality of colon cancer cases in the past several years, not only in Poland but all over the world as well. Each year, approximately a million new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed and that is the cause of death of almost half a million patients in the world.
The aim of this article is to present the epidemiology and the current state of scientific knowledge concerning etiology and pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases in human large intestine. Furthermore, this short review describes the essential risk factors and suggests the simple and effective ways of colon cancer prevention.
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in EU countries. Scientific studies have proved that genetic and hereditary factors have a strong influence on carcinogenesis in human colon. Moreover, environmental factors, such as dietary contribute to the development of colon neoplasm. The most useful tool to reduce high morbidity and mortality is a prevention. Screening tests in non-symptomatic people from high-risk groups or populations enable diagnosis in the early stage of colorectal cancer. Many publications have reported that modification of lifestyle and daily diet also play a significant role in prevention.

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May 29, 2014