Humification index of composts originating from three types of woody biomass
ABSTRACT Composting is a good method for recycling surplus manure and stabilizing organic matter from biowastes. Compost is used as a soil amendment and recently, for restoration of vegetation in barren areas. We investigated the relationship between the type of woody biomass (using Robinia pseudoacacia, Japanese larch and apple) and the humification index (HI) of the resulting compost. This study evaluated the difference in HI between the three compost types, and the structural features of composts and extracted humic acids (HAs). The HIs for R. pseudoacacia and apple were larger than that for Japanese larch after composting for 11 months. The structural features of the Japanese larch compost were also different from the apple and R. pseudoacacia, with a very high carbon/nitrogen ratio. The average molecular weights and ultraviolet–visible spectra (A600/C) of HAs extracted from composting samples at 0 and 11 months indicate that the humification rate of Japanese larch was slower than that of R. pseudoacacia and apple. During composting, the average molecular weights of apple and R. pseudoacacia decreased, while their A600/C values increased, but the reverse was observed for Japanese larch. The humification rate was found to depend on the type of woody biomass being composted.
- SourceAvailable from: Raúl Moral[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.Bioresource Technology 11/2009; 100(22):5444-53. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.11.027 · 5.04 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The subject-matter of this review paper is divided into three sections. The first section briefly discusses on input, transformation and loss of native and added organic matter in soil and on principal effects of fresh organic matter addition on soil properties. The subject of the second section focuses on organic compost. The third section discusses extensively on the most commonly used waste composting process, substrate materials and products of compostation, i.e. criteria and parameters for the evaluation of compost quality as organic fertilizers, including various proposed “humification degree” indexes and compositional, structural and functional properties of humic-like substances in compost. The paper ends with some conclusive comments and recommendations.Science of The Total Environment 06/1989; 81-82:521-542. DOI:10.1016/0048-9697(89)90161-7 · 4.10 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Barren grounds are increasing along the coast of Japan and all over the world. Kelp and other useful large seaweeds are depleted in barren ground as rocky beds become covered with small algae called crustose coralline algae whose main constituent is calcium carbonate. There are a number of different factors responsible for barren ground, including changes in the environment such as elevation of water temperatures and grazing by sea urchins. However, the lack of iron (ferrous ions) is thought to be another factor of barren ground, particularly in the coast of Japan Sea in Hokkaido. The effect of iron for recovering from barren ground was evaluated in this study. We utilized slugs and composts including humic substances (HSs) as iron supplier in seawater, and complex formation of iron with humic substances was examined. At first, the amount of irons emitted from slugs was investigated and it was confirmed that iron-humate could be produced by mixing humic substances and ferrous ions. Next, mixtures of slugs and composts including HS were supplied to a barren ground in shallow water in Hokkaido, in order to investigate the effect of irons for recovering from barren ground. It was indicated that supplying irons resulted in establishing kelp bed significantly.Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy 12/2006; 85(12):971-978. DOI:10.3775/jie.85.971