Humification index of composts originating from three types of woody biomass
ABSTRACT Composting is a good method for recycling surplus manure and stabilizing organic matter from biowastes. Compost is used as a soil amendment and recently, for restoration of vegetation in barren areas. We investigated the relationship between the type of woody biomass (using Robinia pseudoacacia, Japanese larch and apple) and the humification index (HI) of the resulting compost. This study evaluated the difference in HI between the three compost types, and the structural features of composts and extracted humic acids (HAs). The HIs for R. pseudoacacia and apple were larger than that for Japanese larch after composting for 11 months. The structural features of the Japanese larch compost were also different from the apple and R. pseudoacacia, with a very high carbon/nitrogen ratio. The average molecular weights and ultraviolet–visible spectra (A600/C) of HAs extracted from composting samples at 0 and 11 months indicate that the humification rate of Japanese larch was slower than that of R. pseudoacacia and apple. During composting, the average molecular weights of apple and R. pseudoacacia decreased, while their A600/C values increased, but the reverse was observed for Japanese larch. The humification rate was found to depend on the type of woody biomass being composted.
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ABSTRACT: New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.Bioresource Technology 11/2009; 100(22):5444-53. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.11.027 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In evaluating the quality of composts that include humic substances (HSs), the binding of iron(II) (conditional binding constants and binding capacities) are an important criteria. To determine the binding ability, it is necessary to determine the concentrations of free Fe(2+) and Fe(II)-HS complex species present. In the present study, we describe a colorimetric method for determining free Fe(2+) species using ferrozine in an aqueous solution of Fe(2+) and HS. It was found that the colored species in the Fe(2+) and HS mixture represented only free Fe(2+) species. Two water soluble fractions of HS, humic (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids, were isolated from a compost sample, and the conditional binding constants and binding capacities were estimated by colorimetric titration. Differences in the binding of Fe(II) to HA and FA are discussed, based on their structural features, which were characterized by acidic functional group analysis, elemental analysis and solid-state CP-MAS (13)C NMR spectral data.Bioresource Technology 02/2010; 101(12):4456-60. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.01.050 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the main disadvantages in the composting of two-phase olive mill wastes (TPOMW) is the long time required for its transformation (up to 40 weeks). The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between the degradation of the lignocellulosic fraction of TPOMW and the organic matter (OM) mineralisation rate in four composting piles prepared with different bulking agents and N-sources used to enhance OM degradation. The kinetics of degradation of the lignocellulosic fraction was compared to conventional maturation and stability indices to evaluate its impact on the duration of the composting process. The composition of bulking agents mainly affected the water-soluble fraction which influenced the OM degradation rate (linear or exponential OM degradation pattern) at early stages of the composting process but it neither modified the duration of the process (between 34 and 36 weeks) nor the total OM degradation underwent by the piles. The high initial mineral N availability was a key factor to significantly enhanced microbial activity. The mixture with urea as N-source registered the most efficient degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, reducing the thermophilic phase and the total duration of TPOMW composting.Waste Management 10/2010; 30(10):1939-47. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2010.04.031 · 3.16 Impact Factor