Spectroscopy and redox chemistry of copper in mordenite.
ABSTRACT Copper-containing zeolites, such as mordenite (MOR), have recently gained increased attention as a consequence of their catalytic potential. While the preferred copper loadings in these catalytic studies are generally high, the literature lacks appropriate spectroscopic and structural information on such Cu-rich zeolite samples. Higher copper loadings increase the complexity of the copper identity and their location in the zeolite host, but they also provide the opportunity to create novel Cu sites, which are perhaps energetically less favorable, but possibly more reactive and more suitable for catalysis. In order to address the different role of each Cu site in catalysis, we here report a combined electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV/Vis-NIR and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) study on highly copper-loaded MOR. Highly resolved diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of the CuMOR samples were obtained due to the increased copper loading, allowing the differentiation of two isolated mononuclear Cu(2+) sites and the unambiguous correlation with extensively reported features in the EPR spectrum. Ligand field theory is applied together with earlier suggested theoretical calculations to determine their coordination chemistry and location within the zeolite matrix, and the theoretical analysis further allowed us to define factors governing their redox behavior. In addition to monomeric species, an EPR-silent, possibly dimeric, copper site is present in accordance with its charge transfer absorption feature at 22200 cm(-1) , and quantified with TPR. Its full description and true location in MOR is currently being investigated.
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ABSTRACT: In situ XAFS combined with UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy are used to identify the active site in copper-loaded ZSM-5 responsible for the catalytic decomposition of NO. Cu-ZSM-5 was probed with in situ XAFS (i) after O(2) activation and (ii) while catalyzing the direct decomposition of NO into N(2) and O(2). A careful R-space fitting of the Cu K-edge EXAFS data is presented, including the use of different k-weightings and the analysis of the individual coordination shells. For the O(2)-activated overexchanged Cu-ZSM-5 sample a Cu.Cu contribution at 2.87 A with a coordination number of 1 is found. The corresponding UV-vis-near-IR spectrum is characterized by an intense absorption band at 22 700 cm(-1) and a relatively weaker band at 30 000 cm(-1), while no corresponding EPR signal is detected. Comparison of these data with the large databank of well-characterized copper centers in enzymes and synthetic model complexes leads to the identification of the bis(mu-oxo)dicopper core, i.e. [Cu(2)(mu-O)(2)](2+). After dehydration in He, Cu-ZSM-5 shows stable NO decomposition activity and the in situ XAFS data indicate the formation of a large fraction of the bis(mu-oxo)dicopper core during reaction. When the Cu/Al ratio of Cu-ZSM-5 exceeds 0.2, both the bis(mu-oxo)dicopper core is formed and the NO decomposition activity increases sharply. On the basis of the in situ measurements, a reaction cycle is proposed in which the bis(mu-oxo)dicopper core forms the product O(2) on a single active site and realizes the continuous O(2) release and concomitant self-reduction.Journal of the American Chemical Society 07/2003; 125(25):7629-40. · 10.68 Impact Factor
- ChemPhysChem 07/2003; 4(6):626-30. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optical properties of Cu clusters embedded in mordenite are studied experimentally and theoretically. In this work we discuss spectral features of the system at various reduction steps and compare then with the results of spectra obtained within a theoretical model. The model employed consists of Cu clusters embedded in a homogeneous matrix. A second model employed introduced further variation considering a three component system where air or water can be present. The macroscopic dielectric response of the system is obtained within the Maxwell Garnett approximation. In this approach the complex non-local in homogeneous dielectric response of the zeolite+copper system is replaced by an effective homogeneous dielectric function. Metallic clusters can occupy specific available cavities in the zeolite framework. The presence of clusters that are smaller than the cavities in which they reside can lead to an air-Cu or water-Cu interface which allows shifts in surface plasmon resonance energies. As observed experimentally the energy of the main resonance is seen to be insensitive to the filling fraction ratios and highly susceptible to the embedding matrix properties. Reflectance spectra have been obtained which can be explained within this model.Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 03/2012; 375(1):60-4. · 3.55 Impact Factor