Dengue results in as many as 390 million infections annually and causes significant morbidity. A number of efforts are underway to develop vaccines against dengue. The public sector is undertaking efforts to create an enabling environment for vaccine introduction. Recent work by Brooks et al. provides a framework for analyzing which efforts should be undertaken before licensure. They conclude that actions before licensure are required to eliminate the decade or more it normally takes to introduce new vaccines into developing countries. We apply their methodology to dengue and identify a number of critical areas where public sector actions before licensure can greatly accelerate vaccine uptake.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit malaria, dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases, respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 17 constituents from Magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate (MD-SHD) and four experimental MD-SHD liquid formulations (10-50 mg L(-1) liquids) to third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible Cx, p. pallens and Ae. aegypti as well as wild Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis.
2, 4-Di-tert-butylphenol was the most toxic constituent (LC50 , 1.98-3.90 mg L(-1) ), followed by linoleic acid (7.19-10.49 mg L(-1) ) towards four mosquito species larvae. High toxicity was also produced by nerolidol, (±)-limonene, α-terpinene and γ-terpinene (LC50 , 9.84-36.42 mg L(-1) ). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical towards four mosquito species larvae, even though An. sinensis larvae were resistant to deltamethrin and temephos. The MS-SHD 50 mg L(-1) liquid resulted in 92-100% control towards four mosquito species larvae while commercial temephos 200 g L(-1) emulsifiable concentrate was almost ineffective towards An. sinensis larvae (30% mortality).
Reasonable mosquito control in the aquatic environment can be achieved by MD-SHD 50 mg L(-1) liquid as a potential larvicide.
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Pest Management Science 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ps.4064 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue is a serious infectious disease and a growing public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. To control this neglected tropical disease (NTD), vaccines are likely to be the most cost-effective solution. This study analyzed dengue vaccines from both a historical and longitudinal perspective by using patent data, evaluating the geographic and time coverage of innovations, the primary patent holders, the network of cooperation and partnership for vaccine research and development (R & D), the flow of knowledge and the technological domain involved. This study can be seen as an example of the use of patent information to inform policy discussions, strategic research planning, and technology transfer. The results show that 93% of patents were granted since 2000, the majority belonging to the United States and Europe, although the share of patents from developing countries has increased. Unlike another NTDs, there is great participation of private companies in R & D of dengue vaccines and partnerships and collaboration between public and private companies. Finally, in this study, the main holders showed high knowledge absorption and generated capabilities. Therefore, this issue suggests that to overcome the difficulty of translational R & D it is necessary to stimulate the generation of knowledge and relevant scientific research, to enable the productive sector to have the capacity to absorb knowledge, to turn it into OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 9455 innovation, and to articulate partnerships and collaboration.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 08/2015; 12(8):9454-9474. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120809454 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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