Preconditioning is a phenomenon in which brief episodes of a sublethal insult induce robust protection against subsequent lethal injuries. Preconditioning has been observed in multiple organisms and can occur in the brain as well as other tissues. Extensive animal studies suggest that the brain can be preconditioned to resist acute injuries, such as ischemic stroke, neonatal hypoxia/ischemia, trauma, and agents that are used in models of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Effective preconditioning stimuli are numerous and diverse, ranging from transient ischemia, hypoxia, hyperbaric oxygen, hypothermia and hyperthermia, to exposure to neurotoxins and pharmacological agents. The phenomenon of "cross-tolerance," in which a sublethal stress protects against a different type of injury, suggests that different preconditioning stimuli may confer protection against a wide range of injuries. Research conducted over the past few decades indicates that brain preconditioning is complex, involving multiple effectors such as metabolic inhibition, activation of extra- and intracellular defense mechanisms, a shift in the neuronal excitatory/inhibitory balance, and reduction in inflammatory sequelae. An improved understanding of brain preconditioning should help us identify innovative therapeutic strategies that prevent or at least reduce neuronal damage in susceptible patients. In this review, we focus on the experimental evidence of preconditioning in the brain and systematically survey the models used to develop paradigms for neuroprotection, and then discuss the clinical potential of brain preconditioning. In a subsequent components of this two-part series, we will discuss the cellular and molecular events that are likely to underlie these phenomena.
"Neuronal preconditioning can be effected by many and varied stimuli, including hypothermia (Dirnagl et al., 2003; Yuan et al., 2004; Stetler et al., 2014). In rodents, this cooling-induced tolerance requires de novo protein synthesis (Nishio et al., 2000) — a fundamental arm of the cold-shock response (Fujita, 1999), for which data in human neurons is lacking. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: a r t i c l e i n f o Hypothermia is potently neuroprotective but poor mechanistic understanding has restricted its clinical use. Rodent studies indicate that hypothermia can elicit preconditioning, wherein a subtoxic cellular stress confers resistance to an otherwise lethal injury. The molecular basis of this preconditioning remains obscure. Here we explore molecular effects of cooling using functional cortical neurons differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hCNs). Mild-to-moderate hypothermia (28–32 °C) induces cold-shock protein expression and mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hCNs, with full activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chemical block of a principal UPR pathway mitigates the protective effect of cooling against oxidative stress, whilst pre-cooling neurons abrogates the toxic injury produced by the ER stressor tunicamycin. Cold-stress thus preconditions neurons by upregulating adaptive chaperone-driven pathways of the UPR in a manner that precipitates ER-hormesis. Our findings establish a novel arm of neurocryobiology that could reveal multiple therapeutic targets for acute and chronic neuronal injury.
"In addition to ischemic preconditioning, other effective preconditioning stimuli and regimens have been reported. These are both numerous and diverse (Stetler et al, 2014), including hypothermia, hyperthermia, physical exercise, hyperbaric oxygen, exposure to neurotoxins and pharmacological agents such as resveratrol, volatile anesthetics and xenon, and even the mild inflammation produced by endotoxin. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pre-conditioning by ischemia, hyperthermia, hypothermia, hyperbaric oxygen (and numerous other modalities) is a rapidly growing area of investigation that is used in pathological conditions where tissue damage may be expected. The damage caused by surgery, heart attack, or stroke can be mitigated by pre-treating the local or distant tissue with low levels of a stress-inducing stimulus, that can induce a protective response against subsequent major damage. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used for nearly 50 years to enhance tissue healing and to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling. The photons are absorbed in cytochrome(c) oxidase (unit four in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), and this enzyme activation increases electron transport, respiration, oxygen consumption and ATP production. A complex signaling cascade is initiated leading to activation of transcription factors and up- and down-regulation of numerous genes. Recently it has become apparent that LLLT can also be effective if delivered to normal cells or tissue before the actual insult or trauma, in a pre-conditioning mode. Muscles are protected, nerves feel less pain, and LLLT can protect against a subsequent heart attack. These examples point the way to wider use of LLLT as a pre-conditioning modality to prevent pain and increase healing after surgical/medical procedures and possibly to increase athletic performance.
"Nevertheless, adult rat studies have reported preconditioning with LPS before focal or global ischemia . Finally, although we cannot rule out species differences, studies in adult rodents also suggest that LPS can protect against subsequent ischemic insults induced 48 hours or more after LPS . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Perinatal asphyxia and exposure to intrauterine infection are associated with impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants. Acute exposure to non-injurious infection and/or inflammation can either protect or sensitize the brain to subsequent hypoxia-ischemia. However, the effects of subacute infection and/or inflammation are unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that acute-on-chronic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) would exacerbate white matter injury after subsequent asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.
Fetal sheep at 0.7 gestational age received a continuous LPS infusion at 100 ng/kg for 24 hours, then 250 ng/kg/24 hours for 96 hours, plus 1 μg boluses of LPS at 48, 72, and 96 hours or the same volume of saline. Four hours after the last bolus, complete umbilical cord occlusion or sham occlusion was induced for 15 minutes. Sheep were sacrificed 10 days after the start of infusions.
LPS exposure was associated with induction of microglia and astrocytes and loss of total and immature and mature oligodendrocytes (n = 9) compared to sham controls (n = 9). Umbilical cord occlusion with saline infusions was associated with induction of microglia, astrogliosis, and loss of immature and mature oligodendrocytes (n = 9). LPS exposure before asphyxia (n = 8) was associated with significantly reduced microglial activation and astrogliosis and improved numbers of immature and mature oligodendrocytes compared to either LPS exposure or asphyxia alone.
Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the combination of acute-on-chronic LPS with subsequent asphyxia reduced neuroinflammation and white matter injury compared with either intervention alone.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 05/2014; 11(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-11-89 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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