The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network is an ambitious multi-institutional consortium effort aimed at characterizing sequence, copy number, gene (mRNA) expression, microRNA expression, and DNA methylation alterations in 30 cancer types. TCGA data have become an extraordinary resource for basic, translational, and clinical researchers and have the potential to shape cancer diagnostic and treatment strategies. DNA methylation changes are integral to all aspects of cancer genomics and have been shown to have important associations with gene expression, sequence, and copy number changes. This Review highlights the knowledge gained from DNA methylation alterations in human cancers from TCGA.
"Integrated analysis of the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression DNA methylation changes in promoter regions are integral to all aspects of tumorigenesis and have been shown to have important relevance with gene expression (Weisenberger, 2014). Recently, transcriptome profiling has revealed that a significant subset of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, located in non-coding regions, known as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), can modulate gene expression, but their DNA methylation patterns remain poorly understood. "
"Histone acetylation is associated with gene expression while methylation and de-acetylation are associated with gene silencing. Similarly , DNA methylation is associated with gene silencing and is the most studied of the epigenetic processes, especially in the field of cancer research (Subramaniam et al., 2014; Weisenberger 2014). However, relatively little is known of the role epigenetics plays in the progression and development of periodontal diseases (Lod et al., 2013; Barros and Offenbacher 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The field of epigenetics has exploded in the last two decades, with incredible advances in recent years driven by high-throughput sequencing studies. Cancer cells frequently exhibit marked changes in DNA methylation and histone modification during tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These changes in the cancer epigenome are thought to be important in initiating and maintaining malignancy, and pharmaceutical approaches targeting epigenome-modifying enzymes are an attractive therapeutic strategy. Early successes have been made with DNA-demethylating drugs in hematologic malignancies, and efforts are underway to target additional epigenetic regulators and a broader array of tumor types. The Reviews in this issue of the JCI highlight ongoing efforts in this burgeoning field to translate our understanding of the cancer epigenome into successful interventional strategies in the clinic.
The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2014; 124(1):14-6. DOI:10.1172/JCI74145 · 13.22 Impact Factor
Nicolás Navasa, Itziar Martin-Ruiz, Estíbaliz Atondo, James D. Sutherland, Miguel Angel Pascual-Itoiz, Ana Carreras-González, Hooman Izadi, Julen Tomás-Cortázar, Furkan Ayaz, Natalia Martin-Martin, Iviana M Torres, Rosa Barrio, Arkaitz Carracedo, Elias R. Olivera, Mercedes Rincón, Juan Anguita
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