Illnesses and Injuries Related to Total Release Foggers— Eight States, 2001-2006

DOI: 10.1001/jama.300.22.2600)
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Available from: Barbara Morrissey, Jan 03, 2014
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    • "The most common factors contributing to insecticide exposure from foggers include inability or failure to vacate before discharge of the fogger, unintentional fogger discharge, premature re-entry, excessive number of foggers, and failure to notify others nearby (Wheeler et al. 2008). In an effort to minimize misuse caused by failure to follow label instructions, EPA has required manufacturers to make a number of labeling changes by 30 September 2011, to enhance clarity and draw increased attention to critical information (http: "
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    ABSTRACT: Field-collected bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) showed little, if any, adverse effects after 2-h direct exposure to the aerosolized pyrethroid(s) from three over-the-counter total-release foggers ('bug bombs' or 'foggers'); Hotshot Bedbug and Flea Fogger, Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger, and Eliminator Indoor Fogger. One field-collected population, EPM, was an exception in that there was significant mortality at 5-7 d when bugs out in the open had been exposed to the Spectracide Fogger; mortality was low when these bugs had access to an optional harborage, a situation observed for all field-collected populations when exposed to the three foggers. Even the Harlan strain, the long-term laboratory population that is susceptible to pyrethroids and that served as an internal control in these experiments, was unaffected if the bugs were covered by a thin cloth layer that provided harborage. In residences and other settings, the majority of bed bugs hide in protected sites where they will not be directly contracted by the insecticide mist from foggers. This study provides the first scientific data supporting the position that total-release foggers should not be recommended for control of bed bugs, because 1) many field-collected bed bugs are resistant to pyrethroids, and they are not affected by brief exposure to low concentrations of pyrethrins and/or pyrethroids provided by foggers; and 2) there is minimal, if any, insecticide penetration into typical bed bug harborage sites. This study provides strong evidence that Hotshot Bedbug and Flea Fogger, Spectracide Bug Stop Indoor Fogger, and Eliminator Indoor Fogger were ineffective as bed bug control agents.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 06/2012; 105(3):957-63. DOI:10.1603/EC12037 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Total release foggers or “bug bombs” are products designed to fill an area such as a home or workplace with insecticide. Because of their method of action, unintentional exposures may occur. Cases for this retrospective study were all fogger exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000–2009. The distribution of cases was identified for various demographic and clinical factors. There were 2855 fogger exposures. Among the patients 56.0% were females and 69.5% were 20 years or older. Considering the exposure circumstances 95.6% were unintentional and 62.2% occurred through inhalation. The management site was 75.2% on site. The medical outcomes were no effect (11.8%), minor effect (25.1%), moderate effect (7.4%), major effect (0.1%), not followed (no effects expected) (3.5%), not followed (minimal effects expected) (39.3%), not followed (potentially toxic) (4.9%), and effects probably unrelated to exposure (7.7%). The most frequently reported clinical effects were cough (25.4%), vomiting (13.3%), nausea (9.2%), dyspnea (8.7%), throat irritation (7.9%), and headache (5.6%). The public needs to be educated about the potential hazard of exposures to foggers. However, most fogger exposures reported to poison centers are not likely to be seriously toxic and can be managed at home.
    Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 05/2011; 93(5):1089-1097. DOI:10.1080/02772248.2011.562210 · 0.72 Impact Factor