Antioxidant, mutagenic, antimutagenic activities, and phenolic compounds of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. var. orientalis

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey
Industrial Crops and Products (Impact Factor: 3.21). 02/2014; 53:60–64. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.12.015

ABSTRACT The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Liquidambar orientalis var. orientalis, an endemic tree species in Turkey, has medicinal and cosmetic properties; this extract was isolated, and its antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities were investigated. The antioxidant activity was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were investigated by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. The IC50 value for DPPH radicals was 3.11 ± 0.024 mg/ml. The total antioxidant activity increased with an increase in the concentration of the extracts (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/ml), which contained linoleic acid emulsion. The total phenolic content was 333.14 ± 7.96 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds showed the presence of protocatechuic acid (12.232 ± 0.118 mg/g extract), (−)-epicatechin (7.954 ± 0.493 mg/g extract) and gallic acid (3.258 ± 0.035 mg/g extract) as a major phenolic acids in L. orientalis var. orientalis.
The results showed that the ethanolic extract can be considered genotoxically safe, because it does not have any mutagenic effect at the tested concentrations. As a result, the ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of L. orientalis var. orientalis. Also, phenolic compounds of this plant are unknown. These activities are an important topic in the medical field as well as in the food industry.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effect of nine fruit and vegetable ethanolic extracts against the mutagenicity of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) was evaluated by means of the Ames test. Licorice ethanolic extract was the only one that showed an inhibitory effect (ranging from moderate to strong) against mutagenicity of all N-nitrosamines tested. This ethanolic extract showed the greatest inhibition effect against NPIP (72%), NDMA (45%), and NPYR (39%). The greatest inhibition effect (51%) of the mutagenicity of NDBA was shown by kiwi ethanolic extract. Vegetable and fruit ethanolic extracts that exhibited an antimutagenic effect (at the range 50-2000 microg/plate), in decreasing order, against NDMA and NPYR were as follows: licorice > kiwi > carrot and licorice > broccoli > pineapple > kiwi, respectively. Decreasing orders against NDBA and NPIP were, respectively, kiwi > onion > licorice = garlic > green pepper > carrot and licorice > garlic > pineapple > carrot.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/1999; 47(8):3257-64. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lichen, Parmotrema stuppeum (P. stuppeum) was successively extracted with benzene and acetone. Both the extracts were fractionated on 1% oxalic acid impregnated silica gel column to obtain four phenolic compounds. The structures of compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectra as methyl orsenillate, orsenillic acid, atranorin and lecanoric acid respectively. Antioxidant activity of benzene extract, acetone extract and isolated compounds were evaluated in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system. The pure compounds showed moderate antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the isolation and characterisation of compounds from the lichen P. stuppeum as well as on their antioxidant activity.
    Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C 01/2000; 55(11-12):1018-22. · 0.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the storax balsam, which is a kind of sweet gum obtained from the Liquidambar orientalis Mill trees, on cell viability, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lymphocyte in vitro. We studied the genotoxic effects of the extract of storax balsam (SE) using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test system. Also the cytotoxic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of SE were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and cell proliferation (WST-1) assay. The SCE frequency was increased when the cells were treated with 1.6 and 4.0 µg/mL SE concentrations (p < 0.05). Moreover, treatment of the cells with the same concentrations significantly depleted the cell number at 24th and 48th hours and elevated the LDH levels (p < 0.05) at 48th hour. These results suggest that SE can be used as an alternative antibacterial and antipathogenic agent due to its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 12/2011; · 1.71 Impact Factor