In economics destitution is traditionally interpreted as a product of labour market exclusion. Our work departs from the dominant models of poverty by considering destitution among a specific category of workers known as the working poor. Low wages and job insecurity in the informal sector in developing economies can create and perpetuate destitution among the working poor. Our precise contributions are three-fold: first, in order to understand causes and consequences of destitution, we develop an index of destitution from social exclusion of the working poor. Secondly, we test the predictions of this index by using micro-data collected from a sample survey in Bangladesh. Thirdly, from the micro-data we not only offer insights into the sources of destitution but also explain the factors that prevent the working poor from falling into the traps of destitution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both social class and unemployment have been shown in many studies to be related to ill health. Recent work in social epidemiology has demonstrated the importance of examining the accumulation of disadvantage over the life course. This paper therefore uses a large longitudinal data set to examine the accumulation of both disadvantaged class and unemployment over a 20-year period in a representative sample of the male working population of England and Wales.
Both membership of semi- or unskilled social class and unemployment in 1971 were related to limiting long-term illness (LLTI) in 1991 independently of each other, and of subsequent social class and unemployment. Any occurrence of disadvantaged social class or of unemployment added significantly to the risk of LLTI. A labour market disadvantage score comprising the number of occasions on which a study member had been either in a disadvantaged social class or unemployed showed a clear and graded relationship to illness, with odds of 4 to 1 in the worst-scoring group.
The experiences of disadvantaged social class or unemployment at any time during this period contributed independently to an increased risk of chronic limiting illness up to 20 years later in the life course. Whereas improvements in social conditions at any one time will lessen the long-term combined impact of accumulated labour market disadvantage on health, it may not prove easy to obtain short term improvements in health inequality.
International Journal of Epidemiology 05/2002; 31(2):336-41. DOI:10.1093/ije/31.2.336 · 9.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article considers both likelihood and Bayesian estimation procedures for a model with multiple indicators and multiple causes of a single unobservable latent variable. The model is complicated by its reduced form, which displays a mixture of econometric and psychometric themes. We avoid this complexity via the estimation of the unobservable latent variable through direct use of the original structural form. This approach not only provides maximum likelihood estimates that are equivalent to those derived from the reduced form, but it also permits a feasible Bayesian approach, which would be technically complex to execute otherwise.
Journal of the American Statistical Association 09/1981; 76(375):704-708. DOI:10.1080/01621459.1981.10477708 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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